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Parameterization of EUSES Chemical Fate Model for Israel: EUSES-IL . Ella Cohen-Hilaleh Mary Kloc June 2010. Project Outlines. Introduction Model description – EUSES. Data collection. Findings – test case, sensitivity analysis . Conclusion. Project outlines.

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parameterization of euses chemical fate model for israel euses il

Parameterization of EUSES Chemical Fate Model for Israel: EUSES-IL

Ella Cohen-Hilaleh

Mary Kloc

June 2010

project outlines
Project Outlines
  • Introduction
  • Model description – EUSES.
  • Data collection.
  • Findings – test case, sensitivity analysis.
  • Conclusion.
project outlines1
Project outlines
  • Pollution of natural resources is a main concern of the developing world.
  • Pollution sources:

Natural sources – fire, oil leak, saline springs…

Man-made sources –

industrial spills,

agricultural fertilizers

and pesticides,

domestic sewage,

transportation emissions…

Prediction of pollutant concentration in the environment is required.

project outlines2
Project outlines

EUSES – a European model for steady state

pollutant distribution.

  • Purpose: Adjusting EUSES model to Israel for interface with Eco–Indicator.
  • Method: Wide data collection, reprogramming of EUSES, test sample by comparison with local data of spills and residues monitoring, sensitivity analysis.
introduction to mass balance models
Introduction to Mass Balance Models

This represents one environmental compartment (either air, water, soil, etc.)

at one spatial location.

introduction to mass balance models1
Introduction to Mass Balance Models

Chemical, such as a pesticide, is emitted into the

compartment at a certain rate.

introduction to mass balance models2
Introduction to Mass Balance Models

Chemical can move between different environmental

compartments (e.g., from water to soil)

introduction to mass balance models3
Introduction to Mass Balance Models

Chemical can move between different environmental

compartments (e.g., from water to soil) and between

different spatial compartments.

introduction to mass balance models4
Introduction to Mass Balance Models

Chemical can also be formed and degraded through

reactions.

introduction to mass balance models5
Introduction to Mass Balance Models

flow in

flow out

Mass flow for the single compartment:

introduction to mass balance models6
Introduction to Mass Balance Models

flow in

flow out

Mass flow for the single compartment:

0=

Steady state approximation

relevant output
Relevant Output

Concentration in the compartment:

  • Residence Time:
  • the average time the chemical spends in the box
simplebox 2 0
SimpleBox 2.0

3 nested spatial scales, each with a set of environmental compartments:

example from simplebox model
Example from SimpleBox model

Emitted into soil only

example from simplebox model1
Example from SimpleBox model

Moves between environmental

compartments at various rates

example from simplebox model2
Example from SimpleBox model

Moves between spatial

compartments at various rates

example from simplebox model3
Example from SimpleBox model

Degrades through reaction

example from simplebox model4
Example from SimpleBox model

Most of the chemical remains in the

soil compartment.

parameterization for israel
Parameterization for Israel

unchanged

Israel

Element from our partition

input data to the model
Input data to the model –
  • Demographic data
  • Geophysical data
  • Chemical data

Sources:

  • Direct from literature – Scientific & Governmental sources.
  • Indirect - Estimations.

Will see some main informative figures..

slide23

CBS’ division of Israel -Districts, Sub-Districts and Natural Regimes, 20081

Population density

- Israel 20081

slide24

CBS’ division of Israel -Districts, Sub-Districts and Natural Regimes, 20081

Land use distribution in Israelby district2

Population density

- Israel 20081

Israel – 22,000 sk.km

Hifa – 860 sk.km

North – 4600 sk.km

Jerusalem

– 650 sk.km

Tel Aviv

– 170 sk.km

Center – 1300 sk.km

South - 14400 sk.km

slide26

Drainage basins of Israel4,5

Yearly rain average map (1990-1961)6

stream flow mcm 3

Drainage basins of Israel4,5

Dan - 190

Snir (hazbany)- 45

Hermon

(Banyas) - 70

Bezet – 0.15

Einan - 0

Dishon - 0

Cziv - 0.6

Gaaton - 0

Amud – 1.5

Zalmon – 0.5

Naaman - 15

Yavniel - 1

Zipory - 2

Southern

Yarden - 20

Kishon – 0.5

Taninim - 25

Tavor - 1

Hadera - 0

Alexander - 0.5

Harodb - 6

Yarkon – 3.5

Sorek – 0.5

Yearly rain average map (1990-1961)6

Stream flow (MCM) 3
slide28

Soil map of Israel7

Runoff determination11

Rational Equation  Q=ciA

Q = Peak discharge [L3 /T]c = Rational method runoff coefficienti = Rainfall intensity [L/T]A = Drainage area, [L2 [

  • Runoff coefficients were estimated according to:
  • Soil type
  • Land use
slide29

Soil erosion degree8

Conversion via bulk density:

Sandy soils – 1.2-1.8 g/cm3

Fine-textured soils– 1-1.6 g/cm3

Assuming bulk density of 1.4 g/cm3

slide30

Soil erosion degree8

Conversion via bulk density:

Sandy soils – 1.2-1.8 g/cm3

Fine-textured soils– 1-1.6 g/cm3

Assuming bulk density of 1.4 g/cm3.

slide31

Water table12

Coastal aquifer

Large variation over time – so minimum water tables were taken:

Yarkon-Taninimaquifer

Western Galilee

slide32

Test sample – Pesticides in Lake Kinneret

Comparison of EUSES-IL prediction to measured concentration

in the main water compartment.

Input: Estimated amounts that are released to the environment each year, from documented purchase-lists.

slide33

Test sample – Pesticides in Lake Kinneret

Comparison of EUSES-IL prediction to measured concentration

in the main water compartment.

Input: Estimated amounts that are released to the environment each year, from documented purchase-lists.

Pesticide use comparison for 1996, 1997 and The Agricultural Extension Service recommendations (SHAHAM) between different crops13:

No significant differences between crops, years and professional recommendations.

slide35

Endosulfan

Atrazine

Diazinon

Tested chemicals

slide36

Monitoring data -

Pesticide residue concentration (ppb) in lake Kinneret water14

results of testing
Results of Testing

Endosulfan

Atrazine

Diazinon

comparison with euses and measured values
Comparison with EUSES and measured values

Endosulfan

Atrazine

Diazinon

4.44 ton/year

0.03 ton/year

0.93 ton/year

slide40

Area Fraction

Agricultural

Soil

Sea Area

River Flow

Rain Rate

Wind speed

Temperature

  • Our model is more dependent on geographical information than EUSES.
  • We divide the regions using mostly geographical data
  • We also consider the geographical locations of different soil types,
  • water types, etc., within each region.
  • Geographical parameters are not distributed throughout large regions
  • as in EUSES, but are very region-specific.
  • Most other non-geographical parameters had similar sensitivities between models.
  • Except wind speed (?)
slide41

Chemical properties of tested chemicals

Atrazine

Endosulfan

Diazinon

slide42

Atrazine

Chemical properties of tested chemicals

Endosulfan

Diazinon

conclusion
Conclusion
  • EUSES-IL is a significantly improved model compared to EUSES.
  • Possible future improvements:
  • Incorporate more accurate chemical equations into the model.
  • More specific information is required for optimizing results (chemical use, geophysical data).
  • Find more measured data for testing and optimizing the model.
references
References
  • Central Bureau of Statistics - Statistical Abstract of Israel 2008 - No.59.

2. Statistical Abstract of Israel 2009-No.60, Table 1.2.

3. Perlmutter M. Springs and streams in Israel 2008 - report of the SPNI (1), according to Hydrological Service data.

4. Israel Hydrological service.

5. Website of Moto Track: http://www.mototracks.co.il/thematics.htm

6. Gvirtzman, H. 2002. Israel Water Resources, Chapters in Hydrology and Environmental Sciences, Yad Ben-Zvi Press, Jerusalem, 301 p.

7. Ministry of Agriculture – Agricultural research organization & soil conservation and drainage department - 1975.

8. Soil Survey, Ministry of Agriculture, Soil Conservation unit, 1954

9. Kosmasa C et al. The effect of land use on runoff and soil erosion rates under Mediterranean conditions(1997) Catena, 29 (1), pp. 45-59.

10. Laronne J., Lekach J., Cohen H., Alexandrov Y.Experimental Drainage Basins in Israel: Rainfall, Runoff, Suspended Sediment and Bedload Monitoring American Geophysical Union, Fall Meeting 2002, abstract #H51B-0824.

11. Website of Mountain Empire Community College – Big Stone Gap, Virginia:http://water.me.vccs.edu/courses/CIV246/table2_print.htm

12. Hydrological Representative Date - February 2010, Israel Water Authority, Israel Hydrological Service: elyon1.court.gov.il/heb/mayim/Hodaot/hs_01.pdf

13. Bar-Ilan I., Melman G. Survey of pesticides use in the Northern drainage basin of Lake Kinneret (1998) MIGAL - Galilee Technology Center. Kiryat-Shmona, Israel.

14. Zohary T. et al. Kinneret research and monitoring – lab work report for 2008 (T 9/2009) ) Kinneret Limnonological Laboratory, Israel Oceanographic and Limnological Research.

15. Kawamoto K, MacLeod M, Mackay D. Evaluation and comparison of multimedia mass balance models of chemical fate: application of EUSES and ChemCAN to 68 chemicals in Japan. Chemosphere 44 (2001) 599-612.

16. Brandes LJ, den Hollander H, van de Meant D. SimpleBox 2.0: a nested multimedia fate model for evaluating the environmental fate of chemicals. RIVM report no. 719101029, Netherlands.