Pest Management Concepts for Urban Ornamentals & Turf David J. Shetlar, Ph.D. The BugDoc Landscape Entomologist The Ohio State University
IPM Principles and Concepts Traditional Approaches (based on crops) • sample pest populations on a regular basis. • develop pest economic injury levels. • determine economic threshold levels (action thresholds) for each crop and pest.
IPM Principles and Concepts Problems Applying Field Crop Concepts to Urban Areas • urban areas are aesthetic “crops” • general public fear or distaste of pests (“I don’t like bugs!”) • extremely diverse habitats are involved, not monocultures.
IPM Principles and Concepts How do we handle diverse habitats? • Number of Plants – urban landscapes can contain over 100 species of plants! • Number of Pests – each plant may host 1 to 5 pests each!
IPM Principles and Concepts Urban Approaches (for landscapes, Raupp et al.) • Key Plants - plants prone to damaging pest problems. • Key Pests - pests that can cause serious damage or plant loss.
“Traditional” Ornamental Plant Maintenance Program • Fertilize spring and fall – all plants treated the same. • Mulch in spring and put down preemerg-ence herbicide (crab grass and other annual weeds)! • Visit landscape 4-5 times per year and use “cover spray” (contains mixture of miticide, fungicide and insecticide)! • Sell other services – pruning, weeding, etc.
Current Approach to Ornamental Plant Maintenance • MAP landscape, identifying key plants and key pests. • Evaluate individual plants and consult with owner about desires for plants – maintenance, push growth, etc. • Use targeted pesticide applications. • Recommend “crop” rotation!?
Plant Health Care Current Thinking In Plant Health Care (PHC), the concept of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) is only ONE component of the system - the one dealing with "intervention" after a plant stress has been identified as being caused by a pest.
Environmentally Based?? • Sustainable environment? • Plant Health? • Urban habitat health? • Reduced toxic risk?
Sustainable Environments • Need little or no inputs • Resistant to change • Tolerate stresses
Plant Health Care Plant Evaluation Plant Client Stress (or Pest) Intervention? Management
Integrated Pest Management Chemical Controls MONITOR PESTS Insects Diseases Weeds Biological Controls Cultural Controls
Chemical Controls Plant Evaluation MONITOR PESTS Client Plant Insects Diseases Weeds Stress (or Pest) Intervention? Management Biological Controls Cultural Controls In Plant Health Care, In Integrated Pest Management, the PLANT and its OWNER the PESTS are the central (client, manager, etc.) are focus of the system the central focus of the system
Our “concept” of urban landscapes try to mimic outside habitats. Notice the similarities? Trees on the outside perimeter, short-cut plants in the foreground and a “water feature.”
Most urban landscapes put stresses on the ornamental plants, thereby making them more prone to insect damage. These oaks were planted three-in-a-spot (four foot squares in the parking lot). They were being killed by borers and the manager was “mystified”!!
Environmentally Based Lawns and Landscapes Reality Ideal World • Select plant for site • Amend soil before plant • Use new plants • Pest controls do not affect non-targets • "Healthy" plants defend themselves • Plants already installed • Amend after plant • Deal with old plants • Pesticides affect non-targets • "Healthy" plants are better able to defend
Selecting Environmentally Based Products - Insecticides • Bacillus thuringiensis (BT) toxins • Spinosad (Conserve) • Avermectin (Avid) • Soaps and Oils • IGR's • Natural Botanicals - Synthetics
Selecting Environmentally Based Products - Plants • Native - Imported • Perennial - Annual • Wet - Dry Tolerant • Sun - Shade Tolerant • Pests Rare or Common • Pest Tolerant or Intolerant
Environmentally-Based Program (an example) • Soil Sample and Characteristics • Site Characteristics • Plant Inventory - identify & map • Pest Inventory - "key pests“ • Client Needs and Desires • Short & Long Term Interventions
What about biological control? In it’s most simple definition, biological control is using naturally occurring organisms to control pests, whether the pests be vertebrates (fish, birds, reptiles, or mammals), diseases (usually plant pathogens – fungi), weeds, or arthropods (insects and mites). Biological controls are usually predators, parasites, or diseases (pathogens), but some biological control experts also include competitors.
Biocontrol or "BioBased"? • Paenibacillus popillae – grub milky disease • Bacillus thuringiensis – δ-endotoxin • Saccharopolyspora spinosa – spinosyns (=Conserve™)
Predators Ants & Wasps Bugs (damsel, bigeyed, stink) Beetles Mites Spiders Others • Parasites Wasps Flies • Pathogens Bacteria Virus Entomopathogenic Nematodes Fungi Classic Insect Biocontrols
Keys to Successful Biocontrols • Easy to recognize • Easy to use • Public acceptance • Cost effective • Shelf life
Using Biocontrols in Landscapes • Introduction • Augmentation • Conservation
Conserving Biological Controls • Learn to recognize biocontrols • Provide food and habitat • Use least toxic chemicals • Target chemicals WHERE needed • Educate customer • BE PATIENT!!
Selecting Least Toxic Insecticides • Soaps and Oils (kill by contact only) • Use short residual products • Use IGR-type products (very selective) • Use neonicotinoids ?? • Use microbial products • ??
Insecticide LD50s Organophosphates (acetylcholinesterase inhibitors) Acephate (Orthene) 980 Chlorpyrifos (Dursban) 270 Diazinon 400 Ethoprop (Mocap) 62 Fonofos (Crusade) 18 Isofenphos (Oftanol) 20 Isazofos (Triumph) 40-60 Malathion 1000 Trichlorfon (Dylox/Proxol) 250
Insecticide LD50s Carbamates (acetylcholinesterase inhibitors) Bendiocarb (Turcam) 156 Carbaryl (Sevin) 246 Pyrethroids (disrupt nerve sodium pump) Bifenthrin (Talstar) 375 Cyfluthrin (Tempo) 826 Fluvalinate (Mavrik) 282 L-cyhalothrin (Scimitar) 79 Permethrin (Astro) 430
Tetranortriterpenoid (ecdysone blocker; antifeedant) Azadirachtin A & B (Azatrol, Neem, etc.) >3540 Spinosad (synaptic stimulation nicotinic acetycholine sites) 3783-5000 Spinosads (Conserve) Diacylhydrazine (molt accelerating compound, induces molt) Halofenozide (MACH2) 2850 Phenylpyrazoles (GABA receptor disruption) Fipronil (Chipco Choice) 97 New Insecticide LD50s
Nitroguanidine (post-synaptic block, nicotinic ACH sites) Pyridylmethylamine (post-synaptic block, nicotinic ACH sites) Nitroguanidine (post-synaptic block, nicotinic ACH sites) Imidacloprid (Merit) Acetamiprid (TriStar) 450 217 Clothianidin (Arena) >5000 Nitroguanidine (post-synaptic block, nicotinic ACH sites) Thiamethoxam (Meridian) 1563 Nitroguanidine (post-synaptic block, nicotinic ACH sites) Dinotefuran (Safari) >2000 New Insecticide LD50s The Neonicotinoids
Urban Landscape Ecology Program – ULEP A new approach • Interdisciplinary team (over 40 faculty & staff including representatives from Public Health, Education, Architecture, Engineering, Psychology, CBS & FAES) • Use campuses as model ecological landscapes (demonstrate proper plant materials and conversion techniques) • Establish model communities with commercial developer (currently working with Dominion Homes) • Establish a university major
Dominion Homes Burr Oak Development – proposed plan including wetland, a bio-swale water conservation area (will also be a park), as well as low and medium density homes and condo sites. In Upper Darby Watershead.