Contents • Urbanization • Network of Urban Centres • Spatial Patterns in Urban Landscapes • Urban Problems
Urbanization • Meaning of Urban Settlement • Urbanization and Urban Growth • Causes of Urbanization • Difference between developing and developed countries
Meaning of Urban Settlement • Four general approaches for classifying urban and rural • Administrative divisions • Type of local government • Administration centres of all minor divisions • Population clusters • The presence of non-agricultural activities
Population clusters • The minimum size adopted by various governments, however, varies greatly.
Non-agricultural activities • Urbanization is based on the assumption that a town may be more suitably differentiated from rural centres by the presence of non-agricultural activities, and the official definition of urban status in countries such as Israel and Yugoslavia included such criterion.
Urbanization and Urban Growth • It is clear that urbanization and the growth of cities have become one of the major characteristics of the present century. • Northam: "Urbanization is the process whereby a society is transformed from an essentially rural to a predominantly urban one. It has a beginning and an end. In contrast the growth of cities has no limit."
Urbanization – meaning 1 • Measure of the degree of urbanism (level of urbanization) in a society • The proportion of the total population in country living in urban settlements. Urban Size and Urbanization
Urbanization – meaning 2 • The process by which this proportion of urban dwellers increases over time. • Different between urbanization and urban growth Urbanization and Urban Growth
Causes of urbanization • An Efficient Agricultural System • makes surplus quantity of food possible to sustain the urban population • Invention of power-driven machinery • The industrial revolution Factories development • concentration of production into bigger factories requiring large number of workers • The development of Trade and Services • employment in the service, or tertiary sector of the labour force has been an important factor in the growth of cities
Causes of urbanization • Development of Transportation • It allows goods to be transported freely • It possible for people to move freely • Intra-urban transportation • Enable mass movement of people between home and work places • Widespread use of automobile and truck • Decentralization of people and functions within urban areas • Demographic and Social Factors • Natural Increase (Cities) – about 20% • Reasons:improvement of sanitation, health care, social welfare,…… • Rural-urban Migration - about 70%
Rural-urban Migration • Push-Pull Model Barriers Origin Destination > Positive Factor (Pull factor) Move < Negative Factor (Push factor) Stay
Urbanization in developed and developing countries • Developed countries – attenuated ‘S’, Curve • Developing countries –‘J’ curve or rising line
Causes of urbanization – Developed Countries • Industrial Revolution (End of 19 century) • Western Europe and North America • Causes • Farming mechanization • Increase agricultural efficiency • Release labour forces from rural • Fast development of industries in cities • Provide many jobs • Slow increasing rate in Urbanization • Eg. England and Wales 10% in 1891 but 60% in 1973
Causes of urbanization – Developed Countries • Origin: Rural Area • Push factors • Unemployment for mechanization • Low standard of living • Low wages • Poor education • Poor view of future • Destination: Urban Area • Pull Factors • Many job opportunities for industrialization • Higher standard of living • More education • Higher wages • Better health care • Better view of future
Causes of urbanization – Developed Countries 2 (Sub-urbanization) • Population growth rate in suburban zone is higher than that in inner zones of the city. • City scale not national scale • Causes • Satellite and new town formation • Improvement of living standard • Improvement of transport between CBD and suburban • Government policy, eg. Urban renewal programme Slum clearance…..
Causes of urbanization – Developed Countries 2 (Sub-urbanization) • Origin: Urban Area • Push factors • Overcrowded living environment • Pollution • Traffic congestion • High crime rate • Higher land rent. • Destination: Rural Area/ New Town • Pull Factors • More open space, more pleasant living environment. • Fresh air, quiet • Lower land rent • Lower crime rate • Large modern shopping centres in suburb. • Large modern factories, more job opportunities
Causes of urbanization – Developing Countries • Post World War II (1945) • Countries in Africa, Asia and South America • Rapid rate of urbanization • 1920-1970, people living in cities of 100000 or more increased 275% in the developed countries but it was 675% in developing countries. • Causes • High natural increase (high birth but low death rate) • Great contrast in social, economic and medical in cities than in countryside. • Rural-urban migration • Rural Economics Collapse
Causes of urbanization – Developing Countries • Rural Economic Collapse • Push factors are more important than pull factors • Hope for improvement is a key force (dream) Push Pull
Rural-urban migration – developing countries • Urbanization is ahead industrialization • Urban lack the economic capacity to support such urbanization • Industrial growth is sluggish • Unemployment in urban • It cannot absorb the tremendous influx of rural migrants • Improvement of transportation • People can migrate more easily • Diffusion of information from the urban
Rural-urban migration – developing countries • Worse rural conditions • High rural density • Great strain on the agricultural resources • Overcrowding, overgrazing, soil erosion, • Declining productivity • Unemployment • Droughts or famine • Political instability
Problems from rural-urban migration – developing countries • Dream • Hope of finding jobs • Better standard of living, better views of future • Urban cannot cope with such excessive labour • Unemployment, high crime rate • Housing problems • Shanty towns, squatters and slums • Extremely miserable living environment • Urbanization in developing countries is problems creator.
Networks of Urban Centres – Central Place Theory • Central Places • Assumptions • Building of the theory • Evaluations of the central place theory • Application of the central place theory • Conclusion
Central Places • Urban settlements are seemed to be unorderly pattern and no definite factors controlling location, size and spacing of settlement. • Good location: availability of water, height of the land, plain, fertile soil,….. (old approach) • Urban settlemnts are affected by it accessibility to people. (location on routes, road, rail, water routes……) It is good for importing raw materials and exporting finished products. • The size of settlement is determine by its location
Central Place • In 1933, Walter Christaller finished the book ‘Central Places in Southern Germany’ • Every town acts as a focus for the surrounding countryside. • Every town as a central place. • Central places are settlements which are centrally placed within the area which they serve. • A central place serves and provides its immediate region with goods and services. • Some central places are more important than others. They have more services and serve a larger area. • Spatial hierarchy
Assumptions • An isotropic plain • Transport costs are proportional to distance, single uniform transport system and an uniform transportation networkin all directions(equally accessible) • The population is even spatial distribution. • Common culture and a common level of technology • The income, demand schedules, and propensities to consume are all equal. • Producers and consumers behave in an optimum fashion. • Desire of people: Incomes of the people offering goods and services should be maximized and the distance moved by consumers to purchase the goods and services be minimized.
Building of the theory • Threshold Value • Range of goods/ services • The shape of the Tributary area • Different orders of goods • A hierarchical spatial arrangement of central places • K value (3, 4, and 7)
Threshold Value • Minimum population that is required to bring (support) about the offering of a certain type of goods for sale to sustain any service. • Minimum level of demand as the threshold value. • The minimum population require to bring about this demand is known as threshold population.
Range of Goods/ Services • Maximum distance over which people will travel to purchase a piece of goods or a services offered at a central place. (Max. serving area of a central place.)
Demand curve and Demand cone • The quantity of the goods that a consumer will prepare to buy depends on the actual price of the goods. • The price to the customer varies only with his distance. • The further he is from the central place, the less he will consume.
Upper limit and lower limit • The upper limit is the range of a type of goods from a central place. • The lower limit is the threshold value. • It is impossible for the whole population to be served from only one central place. • Various central places will appear each having its own circular market area. Lower limit or threshold value Upper limit or Range of goods
Different orders of goods • It is impossible for all kinds of goods and services to be provided at all locations. • The distribution of the central places will be shown in the figure which shows that the different orders of goods are arranged in an orderly hierarchy.
K value (3, 4 and 7) • There are 3 possible spatial arrangement of central places (K value) • K=3 (Marketing Principle) • K=4 (Transport Principle) • K=7 (Administration Principle)
Marketing Principle (K=3) • The boundary of a central place’s market area passes through six other consumption centres. • The demand of each of these centres is shared with other central places (1/3, K=3)
Marketing Principle (K=3) • Number of Central Places: • The number of lower order central places is 3 times the number of its next higher order one. • From the highest order central place to the lowest order central places, the ratio is 1:2:6:18:54…… • Serving area of a central place: • The serving area of a central place is 3 times the area of its lower order one. • From the lowest order central place to the highest order one, the ratio is 1:3:9:27:81:243…….. • Spacing (Distance) of central places: • The spacing (distance) of the same order central place is calculated by (where n is the order of central place)
Transport Principle (K=4) These central places lie on main transport routes connecting the higher order centres. • The boundary of a central place’s market (serving area) passes through six other centres • The demand of each of these centres is shared with other central places (1/2, K=4)
Transport Principle (K=4) • Number of Central Places: • The number of lower order central places is 4 times the number of its next higher order one. • From the highest order central place to the lowest order central places, the ratio is 1:3:12:48:192…… • Serving area of a central place: • The serving area of a central place is 4 times the area of its lower order one. • From the lowest order central place to the highest order one, the ratio is 1:4:16:64:256……. • Spacing (Distance) of central places: • The spacing (distance) of the same order central place is calculated by (where n is the order of central place)
Administration Principle (K=7) Efficient administration is the control the whole area and it is impossible shared with with other centres. • All 6 tributary centres are under the control of the central place.
Administration Principle (K=7) • Number of Central Places: • The number of lower order central places is 7 times the number of its next higher order one. • From the highest order central place to the lowest order central places, the ratio is 1:6:42:294:2058…… • Serving area of a central place: • The serving area of a central place is 7 times the area of its lower order one. • From the lowest order central place to the highest order one, the ratio is 1:7:49:343:2401……. • Spacing (Distance) of central places: • The spacing (distance) of the same order central place is calculated by (where n is the order of central place)
Evaluation of the central place theory • Criticisms • Values of the Christaller theory • Application of the theory • Conclusion • Hierarchy of settlement • Centrality score
Criticisms • Christaller has not given a satisfactory explanation of the hexagonal shape of the complementary areas. • Regular arrangements of the central places have only been tentatively demonstrated. • A hierarchical structuringbase on the assumptions of an isotropic surface, but the aggregation of areas masks this structuring. • It is economic deterministic. It allows no account of individual perception. • Restricts of tertiary production. • Distribution of towns in most area of the world reveals no sign of a hexagonal shape.
Criticisms - 2 • Towns do not fall into discrete classes but rather are spread uniformly along a continuum of sizes from the smallest to the largest. • It applies well in poor and thinly settled farm districts with simple social organization and mainly self-contained, but not works well in manufacturing area. • Highest-order center offers all the low-order services • Some low-order service may not be offered in highest-order center • The centers of the same order will offer same range of services • The services offered by the centers of the same order may be different
Values of the theory • It shows the interdependence of town and its hinterland. • A hierarchy of functions and of settlement is devised. • The idea of competition between centres is stressed in the marketing principle. • It is possible to make a number of predictions about the pattern of future settlement location. • It defines the ideal pattern of central places and explains why an urban hierarchy may exist in the reality. • A small number of high-order centers serve large hinterland; • Many low-order centers serve small hinterland. • It provides a basis for planning the size and spacing of centers in newly-developing areas.