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Urban Landscape

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Urban Landscape

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  1. Urban Landscape

  2. Contents • Urbanization • Network of Urban Centres • Spatial Patterns in Urban Landscapes • Urban Problems

  3. Urbanization • Meaning of Urban Settlement • Urbanization and Urban Growth • Causes of Urbanization • Difference between developing and developed countries

  4. Meaning of Urban Settlement • Four general approaches for classifying urban and rural • Administrative divisions • Type of local government • Administration centres of all minor divisions • Population clusters • The presence of non-agricultural activities

  5. Population clusters • The minimum size adopted by various governments, however, varies greatly.

  6. Non-agricultural activities • Urbanization is based on the assumption that a town may be more suitably differentiated from rural centres by the presence of non-agricultural activities, and the official definition of urban status in countries such as Israel and Yugoslavia included such criterion.

  7. Urbanization and Urban Growth • It is clear that urbanization and the growth of cities have become one of the major characteristics of the present century. • Northam: "Urbanization is the process whereby a society is transformed from an essentially rural to a predominantly urban one. It has a beginning and an end. In contrast the growth of cities has no limit."

  8. Urbanization – meaning 1 • Measure of the degree of urbanism (level of urbanization) in a society • The proportion of the total population in country living in urban settlements. Urban Size and Urbanization

  9. Urbanization – meaning 2 • The process by which this proportion of urban dwellers increases over time. • Different between urbanization and urban growth Urbanization and Urban Growth

  10. Causes of urbanization • An Efficient Agricultural System • makes surplus quantity of food possible to sustain the urban population • Invention of power-driven machinery • The industrial revolution Factories development • concentration of production into bigger factories requiring large number of workers • The development of Trade and Services • employment in the service, or tertiary sector of the labour force has been an important factor in the growth of cities

  11. Causes of urbanization • Development of Transportation • It allows goods to be transported freely • It possible for people to move freely • Intra-urban transportation • Enable mass movement of people between home and work places • Widespread use of automobile and truck • Decentralization of people and functions within urban areas • Demographic and Social Factors • Natural Increase (Cities) – about 20% • Reasons:improvement of sanitation, health care, social welfare,…… • Rural-urban Migration - about 70%

  12. Rural-urban Migration • Push-Pull Model Barriers Origin Destination > Positive Factor (Pull factor) Move < Negative Factor (Push factor) Stay

  13. Urbanization in developed and developing countries • Developed countries – attenuated ‘S’, Curve • Developing countries –‘J’ curve or rising line

  14. Causes of urbanization – Developed Countries • Industrial Revolution (End of 19 century) • Western Europe and North America • Causes • Farming mechanization • Increase agricultural efficiency • Release labour forces from rural • Fast development of industries in cities • Provide many jobs • Slow increasing rate in Urbanization • Eg. England and Wales 10% in 1891 but 60% in 1973

  15. Causes of urbanization – Developed Countries • Origin: Rural Area • Push factors • Unemployment for mechanization • Low standard of living • Low wages • Poor education • Poor view of future • Destination: Urban Area • Pull Factors • Many job opportunities for industrialization • Higher standard of living • More education • Higher wages • Better health care • Better view of future

  16. Causes of urbanization – Developed Countries 2 (Sub-urbanization) • Population growth rate in suburban zone is higher than that in inner zones of the city. • City scale not national scale • Causes • Satellite and new town formation • Improvement of living standard • Improvement of transport between CBD and suburban • Government policy, eg. Urban renewal programme Slum clearance…..

  17. Causes of urbanization – Developed Countries 2 (Sub-urbanization) • Origin: Urban Area • Push factors • Overcrowded living environment • Pollution • Traffic congestion • High crime rate • Higher land rent. • Destination: Rural Area/ New Town • Pull Factors • More open space, more pleasant living environment. • Fresh air, quiet • Lower land rent • Lower crime rate • Large modern shopping centres in suburb. • Large modern factories, more job opportunities

  18. Causes of urbanization – Developing Countries • Post World War II (1945) • Countries in Africa, Asia and South America • Rapid rate of urbanization • 1920-1970, people living in cities of 100000 or more increased 275% in the developed countries but it was 675% in developing countries. • Causes • High natural increase (high birth but low death rate) • Great contrast in social, economic and medical in cities than in countryside. • Rural-urban migration • Rural Economics Collapse

  19. Causes of urbanization – Developing Countries • Rural Economic Collapse • Push factors are more important than pull factors • Hope for improvement is a key force (dream) Push Pull

  20. Rural-urban migration – developing countries

  21. Rural-urban migration – developing countries • Urbanization is ahead industrialization • Urban lack the economic capacity to support such urbanization • Industrial growth is sluggish • Unemployment in urban • It cannot absorb the tremendous influx of rural migrants • Improvement of transportation • People can migrate more easily • Diffusion of information from the urban

  22. Rural-urban migration – developing countries • Worse rural conditions • High rural density • Great strain on the agricultural resources • Overcrowding, overgrazing, soil erosion, • Declining productivity • Unemployment • Droughts or famine • Political instability

  23. Problems from rural-urban migration – developing countries • Dream • Hope of finding jobs • Better standard of living, better views of future • Urban cannot cope with such excessive labour • Unemployment, high crime rate • Housing problems • Shanty towns, squatters and slums • Extremely miserable living environment • Urbanization in developing countries is problems creator.

  24. Networks of Urban Centres – Central Place Theory • Central Places • Assumptions • Building of the theory • Evaluations of the central place theory • Application of the central place theory • Conclusion

  25. Central Places • Urban settlements are seemed to be unorderly pattern and no definite factors controlling location, size and spacing of settlement. • Good location: availability of water, height of the land, plain, fertile soil,….. (old approach) • Urban settlemnts are affected by it accessibility to people. (location on routes, road, rail, water routes……) It is good for importing raw materials and exporting finished products. • The size of settlement is determine by its location

  26. Central Place • In 1933, Walter Christaller finished the book ‘Central Places in Southern Germany’ • Every town acts as a focus for the surrounding countryside. • Every town as a central place. • Central places are settlements which are centrally placed within the area which they serve. • A central place serves and provides its immediate region with goods and services. • Some central places are more important than others. They have more services and serve a larger area. • Spatial hierarchy

  27. Assumptions • An isotropic plain • Transport costs are proportional to distance, single uniform transport system and an uniform transportation networkin all directions(equally accessible) • The population is even spatial distribution. • Common culture and a common level of technology • The income, demand schedules, and propensities to consume are all equal. • Producers and consumers behave in an optimum fashion. • Desire of people: Incomes of the people offering goods and services should be maximized and the distance moved by consumers to purchase the goods and services be minimized.

  28. Building of the theory • Threshold Value • Range of goods/ services • The shape of the Tributary area • Different orders of goods • A hierarchical spatial arrangement of central places • K value (3, 4, and 7)

  29. Real pattern of urban settlement

  30. Threshold Value • Minimum population that is required to bring (support) about the offering of a certain type of goods for sale to sustain any service. • Minimum level of demand as the threshold value. • The minimum population require to bring about this demand is known as threshold population.

  31. Range of Goods/ Services • Maximum distance over which people will travel to purchase a piece of goods or a services offered at a central place. (Max. serving area of a central place.)

  32. Demand curve and Demand cone • The quantity of the goods that a consumer will prepare to buy depends on the actual price of the goods. • The price to the customer varies only with his distance. • The further he is from the central place, the less he will consume.

  33. Upper limit and lower limit • The upper limit is the range of a type of goods from a central place. • The lower limit is the threshold value. • It is impossible for the whole population to be served from only one central place. • Various central places will appear each having its own circular market area. Lower limit or threshold value Upper limit or Range of goods

  34. The shape of the Tributary Area

  35. Different orders of goods

  36. Different orders of goods • It is impossible for all kinds of goods and services to be provided at all locations. • The distribution of the central places will be shown in the figure which shows that the different orders of goods are arranged in an orderly hierarchy.

  37. A Hierarchical spatial arrangement of central places

  38. K value (3, 4 and 7) • There are 3 possible spatial arrangement of central places (K value) • K=3 (Marketing Principle) • K=4 (Transport Principle) • K=7 (Administration Principle)

  39. Marketing Principle (K=3) • The boundary of a central place’s market area passes through six other consumption centres. • The demand of each of these centres is shared with other central places (1/3, K=3)

  40. Marketing Principle (K=3) • Number of Central Places: • The number of lower order central places is 3 times the number of its next higher order one. • From the highest order central place to the lowest order central places, the ratio is 1:2:6:18:54…… • Serving area of a central place: • The serving area of a central place is 3 times the area of its lower order one. • From the lowest order central place to the highest order one, the ratio is 1:3:9:27:81:243…….. • Spacing (Distance) of central places: • The spacing (distance) of the same order central place is calculated by (where n is the order of central place)

  41. Transport Principle (K=4) These central places lie on main transport routes connecting the higher order centres. • The boundary of a central place’s market (serving area) passes through six other centres • The demand of each of these centres is shared with other central places (1/2, K=4)

  42. Transport Principle (K=4) • Number of Central Places: • The number of lower order central places is 4 times the number of its next higher order one. • From the highest order central place to the lowest order central places, the ratio is 1:3:12:48:192…… • Serving area of a central place: • The serving area of a central place is 4 times the area of its lower order one. • From the lowest order central place to the highest order one, the ratio is 1:4:16:64:256……. • Spacing (Distance) of central places: • The spacing (distance) of the same order central place is calculated by (where n is the order of central place)

  43. Administration Principle (K=7) Efficient administration is the control the whole area and it is impossible shared with with other centres. • All 6 tributary centres are under the control of the central place.

  44. Administration Principle (K=7)

  45. Administration Principle (K=7) • Number of Central Places: • The number of lower order central places is 7 times the number of its next higher order one. • From the highest order central place to the lowest order central places, the ratio is 1:6:42:294:2058…… • Serving area of a central place: • The serving area of a central place is 7 times the area of its lower order one. • From the lowest order central place to the highest order one, the ratio is 1:7:49:343:2401……. • Spacing (Distance) of central places: • The spacing (distance) of the same order central place is calculated by (where n is the order of central place)

  46. Combination – No Pattern

  47. Evaluation of the central place theory • Criticisms • Values of the Christaller theory • Application of the theory • Conclusion • Hierarchy of settlement • Centrality score

  48. Criticisms • Christaller has not given a satisfactory explanation of the hexagonal shape of the complementary areas. • Regular arrangements of the central places have only been tentatively demonstrated. • A hierarchical structuringbase on the assumptions of an isotropic surface, but the aggregation of areas masks this structuring. • It is economic deterministic. It allows no account of individual perception. • Restricts of tertiary production. • Distribution of towns in most area of the world reveals no sign of a hexagonal shape.

  49. Criticisms - 2 • Towns do not fall into discrete classes but rather are spread uniformly along a continuum of sizes from the smallest to the largest. • It applies well in poor and thinly settled farm districts with simple social organization and mainly self-contained, but not works well in manufacturing area. • Highest-order center offers all the low-order services • Some low-order service may not be offered in highest-order center • The centers of the same order will offer same range of services • The services offered by the centers of the same order may be different

  50. Values of the theory • It shows the interdependence of town and its hinterland. • A hierarchy of functions and of settlement is devised. • The idea of competition between centres is stressed in the marketing principle. • It is possible to make a number of predictions about the pattern of future settlement location. • It defines the ideal pattern of central places and explains why an urban hierarchy may exist in the reality. • A small number of high-order centers serve large hinterland; • Many low-order centers serve small hinterland. • It provides a basis for planning the size and spacing of centers in newly-developing areas.