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Core Four Pest Management. USDA-NRCS Cropland Technology Team. Overview. Introduction to Core Four Pest Management Pest Management Policy Integrated Pest Management (IPM) Environmental Risks of Pest Management Implementing the Pest Management Standard Using the Pest Management Jobsheet.

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Core four pest management

Core Four Pest Management

USDA-NRCS

Cropland Technology Team


Overview
Overview

  • Introduction to Core Four Pest Management

  • Pest Management Policy

  • Integrated Pest Management (IPM)

  • Environmental Risks of Pest Management

  • Implementing the Pest Management Standard

  • Using the Pest Management Jobsheet

Core Four


Other pest management training
Other Pest Management Training

  • A comprehensive NEDC self-paced study course entitled “Nutrient and Pest Management Considerations in a Conservation Management System Plan”

  • Extension and state agency training in pest management and pesticide applicator safety

  • Certified Crop Advisor Program

Core Four


Introduction to core four pest management
Introduction to Core Four Pest Management

  • Pest Management is a critical component of conservation planning

  • Pest Management must be used in conjunction with:

    • crop residue management

    • nutrient management

    • conservation buffers

    • other conservation practices

Core Four


Core four pest management goals
Core Four Pest Management Goals

  • The pest management component of a conservation plan should enhance crop quality and quantity + minimize negative impacts to identified resource concerns

  • IPM should be utilized where it’s available

  • The conservation plan should be cooperatively developed with whoever makes pesticide recommendations

Core Four


Nrcs role in core four pest management
NRCS Role In Core Four Pest Management

  • NRCS’s primary role in pest management is to help producers understand the environmental impacts associated with different pest control options, so they can fully incorporate environmental risk into their pest management decision-making process

Core Four


Current focus
Current Focus

  • Since pesticide impacts on water quality are a major concern, our emphasis is on:

    • Management factors that reduce the potential for pesticide movement below the rootzone and beyond the edge of the field (including management of crop, residue/tillage, water and pesticide(s)

    • Conservation Buffers that reduce pesticide movement beyond the edge of the field

Core Four


To get the job done nrcs must
To get the job done, NRCS must:

  • Supplement recommendations made by others with environmental risk information

  • Help producers understand how pest management interrelates with climateand soil, water and crop management, so they can implement strategies to minimize negative impacts on non-target plants, animals and humans

Core Four


Stop

Core Four


Integrated pest management ipm
Integrated Pest Management (IPM)

  • A pest is any organism (plant or animal) judged by people as undesirable

  • Ecologically speaking, no organism is born a pest; it all depends on human perspective

  • Pest problems do not arise as independent or isolated events

  • Crops and pests are part of an agroecosystem

Core Four


IPM

  • Attempts to control one pest species without regard for the overall agroecosystem, can disrupt checks and balances and increase the severity of subsequent pest infestations

  • IPM depends on a detailed understanding of pest population dynamics

Core Four


Agricultural pests include
Agricultural pests include:

  • Insects and related arthropods: invertebrates such as caterpillars, beetles and mites that cause injury by feeding on plants and animals and by transmitting pathogens

  • Nematodes: microscopic, multicellular, unsegmented roundworms that parasitize animals and plants (Most nematodes that attack agricultural crops feed on roots)

Core Four


Agricultural pests include1
Agricultural pests include:

  • Pathogens: disease-causing bacteria, fungi, viruses and related organisms

  • Vertebrates: any native or introduced species of vertebrate animal that is a health hazard, general nuisance, or destroys food, fiber, or natural resources

Core Four


Agricultural pests include2
Agricultural pests include:

  • Weeds: undesirable plants that reduce crop yield and quality by competing for space, water, and nutrients; weeds also may harbor crop-attacking insects and pathogens

Core Four


Integrated pest management defined
Integrated Pest Management Defined:

  • Integrated pest management (IPM) is an approach to pest control that combines biological, cultural and other alternatives to chemical control with the judicious use of pesticides. The objective of IPM is to maintain pest levels below economically damaging levels while minimizing harmful effects of pest control on human health and environmental resources

Core Four


Ipm theory
IPM Theory

Core Four


Ipm today
IPM Today

Core Four


IPM

  • Integrated means that a broad interdisciplinary approach is taken using scientific principles of plant protection to bring together a variety of management tactics into an overall strategy

  • IPM strives for maximum use of naturally occurring control forces including weather, pest diseases, predators, and parasites

Core Four


IPM

  • With IPM, the role for chemical pesticides is one of last resort if other alternatives fail to correct the problem

  • Pesticides are not applied according to a preset schedule: they only are used if close inspection shows they are needed to prevent severe damage

Core Four


IPM

  • Management is the decision making process to reduce pest status in a planned, systematic way by keeping their numbers below economically acceptable levels

  • The essence of IPM is decision-making: determining IF, WHEN, WHERE and WHAT mix of control methods are needed

Core Four


IPM

  • IPM attempts to satisfy economic, environmental and social objectives (which sometimes are in conflict with each other) to provide cost-effective pest control that minimizes adverse impacts on human health and the environment

Core Four


Ipm tomorrow
IPM Tomorrow

Core Four


Pest resistance
Pest Resistance

  • Organisms evolve to survive exposure to control measures that worked on earlier generations

  • In theory, pests can develop resistance to any type of control

  • In practice, resistance occurs most frequently in response to pesticide use (600 resistant insects, 100 resistant weeds)

Core Four


Pest resistance1
Pest Resistance

  • In the Midwest, farmers routinely rotate corn with soybeans to break the infestation cycle of the corn rootworm

  • The corn rootworm has developed strains that overcome crop rotation by extending their overwintering resting stage in the soil from one winter to several winters, so they can attack corn the next time it is planted

Core Four



Basic ipm principles
Basic IPM Principles

  • There is no silver bullet

    • Over-reliance on any single control measure can have undesirable effects including resistance, resurgence and replacement

Core Four


Basic ipm principles1
Basic IPM Principles

  • Tolerate, don't eradicate

    • Most crops tolerate low pest infestation levels

    • IPM seeks to reduce pest populations below levels that are economically damaging rather than to totally eliminate infestations

Core Four


Basic ipm principles2
Basic IPM Principles

  • Treat the causes of pest outbreaks, not the symptoms

    • IPM requires a detailed understanding of pest biology and ecology so that the cropping system can be selectively manipulated to the pest's disadvantage

Core Four


Basic ipm principles3
Basic IPM Principles

  • If you kill the natural enemies, you inherit their job

    • Naturally occurring predators, parasites, pathogens, antagonists and competitors help keep many pest populations in check

    • IPM strives to enhance the impact of beneficials and other natural controls by conserving or augmenting those agents

Core Four


Basic ipm principles4
Basic IPM Principles

  • Pesticides are not a substitute for good farming

    • A vigorously growing plant can better defend itself against pests than a stressed plant

    • IPM takes maximum advantage of farming practices that promote plant health and allow crops to escape or tolerate pest injury

Core Four


Putting ipm philosophy into practice
Putting IPM philosophy into practice:

  • Use cultural methods, biological controls, pest-resistant varieties and other alternatives to pesticides

  • Use scouting and economic thresholds to guide pesticide use decisions

  • Match pesticides with site characteristics to minimize off-site environmental risks

Core Four


Cultural pest controls
Cultural Pest Controls

  • Crop rotation

  • Tillage operations that turn the soil and bury crop debris

  • Altering planting and harvest dates

  • Altering seeding rates and/or crop spacing

  • Seedbed preparation, fertilizer application and irrigation that helps the crop to outgrow its pests

Core Four


Cultural pest controls1
Cultural Pest Controls

  • Sanitation practices such as cleaning tillage and harvesting equipment

  • Certified seed that is free of pathogens and weed seed

  • Cover crops

  • Trap crops

Core Four


Pest resistant varieties
Pest-resistant Varieties

  • Tolerate pest injury without yield loss

  • Kill pests by producing toxic chemicals

  • Less attractive to pests

Core Four


Biological controls
Biological Controls

  • Predators

    • Free-living animals that eat other animals

    • Usually insects or arthropods, but birds, reptiles and mammals are also used

Core Four


Biological controls1
Biological Controls

  • Parasitoids

    • Insect parasites of other insects

    • Usually tiny wasps and flies

    • Parasitoids kill their host

Core Four


Biological controls2
Biological Controls

  • Pathogens

    • Disease causing microorganisms

    • They include viruses, bacteria, fungi and nematodes

Core Four


Scouting pest thresholds
Scouting & Pest Thresholds

  • A key principle of IPM is that pesticides should only be used when field examination or scouting shows that infestations exceed economic thresholds

  • These guidelines differentiate economically insignificant populations from intolerable infestations

Core Four




Site specific pesticide selection
Site-Specific Pesticide Selection

  • The final component of IPM is selection of pesticides that pose the least risk of leaching through soil or being transported from fields in runoff water and sediment or drifting as spray particles on the wind

Core Four


Usda national ipm initiative
USDA National IPM Initiative

  • USDA, EPA and FDA responded to the President s proposal for reduced pesticide risk by jointly calling for the voluntary goal of implementing IPM methods on 75% of U.S. cropland by the year 2000

  • To achieve the 75% adoption goal, the USDA announced on 14 December 1994 its National IPM Initiative

Core Four


The ipm initiative is based on two simple premises
The IPM Initiative is based on two simple premises:

  • Involving farmers and other pest control advisors in the development of IPM programs will increase subsequent adoption

  • IPM benefits everyone: it can reduce environmental risk, improve food safety and increase farmer profitability

Core Four


Stop

Core Four


Environmental risks of pest management
Environmental Risks of Pest Management

  • Chemical control

    • Risk of pesticides leaving the Agricultural Management Zone (AMZ) in soil, water and air, and negatively impacting non-target plants, animals and humans[AMZ is the top of the crop canopy to the bottom of the rootzone]

    • Risk of harming beneficial organisms

    • Risk to personal safety

Core Four


Pesticides
Pesticides

  • Pesticides are defined as "any substance used for controlling, preventing, destroying, repelling, or mitigating any pest."

Core Four


Pesticide classes and target pests
Pesticide Classes and Target Pests

  • Acaracide - Mites

  • Fungicide - Fungi

  • Herbicide - Weeds

  • Insecticide - Insects

  • Larvicide - Larvae (usually mosquito)

  • Miticide - Mites

  • Nematicide - Nematodes

Core Four


Pesticide use patterns
Pesticide Use Patterns

  • Herbicides, insecticides and fungicides represent over 93% of the pesticide active ingredient used worldwide

  • Herbicides typically represent over 50% of pesticide use, followed by insecticides (23-35%), and fungicides (11-14%)

Core Four


Pesticide classes and functions
Pesticide Classes and Functions

  • Attractants - attract insects

  • Chemosterilants - sterilize pests

  • Defoliants - remove leaves

  • Desiccants - speed drying of plants

  • Growth regulators - stimulate or retard pests

  • Pheromones - attract insects or vertebrates

  • Repellents - repel insects, mites, ticks and vertebrates

Core Four


Pesticide formulation types
Pesticide Formulation Types

  • WP - wettable powder

  • S - solutions

  • F - flowable

  • G - granules or granular

  • D - dusts

  • SP - soluble powder

  • EC - emulsifiable concentrate

Core Four


Adjuvants
Adjuvants

  • Adjuvants are chemicals that are added to a pesticide formulation or spray mixture to improve performance and/or safety

  • Most pesticide formulations contain one or more adjuvants:

    • Wetting agents

    • Emulsifiers

    • Spreaders

Core Four


Adjuvants1
Adjuvants

  • Stickers

  • Penetrants

  • Foaming agents

  • Thickeners

  • Safeners

  • Compatibility agents

  • Buffers

  • Antifoaming agents

Core Four


Pesticides in the environment
Pesticides in the Environment

Over 1.2 billion pounds of pesticide active ingredients are used annually in the USA

The Federal Insecticide Fungicide and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) is the primary legislation regulating pesticides in the USA

The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is responsible for the administration of FIFRA

Core Four


Pesticides in the environment1
Pesticides in the Environment

FIFRA was amended by the 1996 Food Quality Protection Act (FQPA)

EPA must now:

consider all non-occupational exposure pathways when establishing tolerances (drinking water exposure + exposure to pesticide residues in food)

screen pesticides for endocrine disruption

consider cumulative risks of pesticides that have common mechanisms of toxicity

Core Four


Pesticides in the environment2
Pesticides in the Environment

Under FQPA EPA must also:

consider risks to infants and children when setting tolerances

expedite approval of "reduced risk" pesticides

report annually to Congress on progress of the pesticide re-registration program

Core Four


Pesticide risk assessment
Pesticide Risk Assessment

Consider the potential for exposure to the pesticide

Consider the toxicological hazard posed by the pesticide

Characterize risk by combining pesticide exposure and toxicity

Core Four


Point source pesticide exposure
Point Source Pesticide Exposure

Mixing/loading

Accidental spills

Container disposal

Core Four


Non point source pesticide exposure
Non-Point Source Pesticide Exposure

Field Leaching

Field Runoff

Field Erosion

Core Four


Environmental fate
Environmental Fate

Understanding Pesticide Persistence and Mobility in Soil

Many factors govern the potential for pesticide contamination of groundwater or surface water

These factors include soil properties, pesticide properties, hydraulic loading on the soil, and crop management practices

Core Four


Pesticide Environmental Fate Properties and NRCS Soil/Pesticide Interaction Screening Procedure (SPISP) Pesticide Ratings


Pesticides volatilization is determined by vapor pressure
Pesticides volatilization is determined by vapor pressure Soil/Pesticide Interaction Screening Procedure (SPISP) Pesticide Ratings

Core Four


Sensitivity vulnerability of ground and surface water
Sensitivity / Vulnerability of Ground and Surface Water Soil/Pesticide Interaction Screening Procedure (SPISP) Pesticide Ratings

Sensitivity refers to intrinsic physical and biological characteristics of a particular site that make it more or less susceptible to ground or surface water contamination

Sensitivity parameters include:

climate

soil characteristics

distance to water bodies

Core Four


Sensitivity vulnerability of ground and surface water1

Vulnerability refers to extrinsic management factors that could make a sensitive site more or less susceptible to ground or surface water contamination

Vulnerability parameters include:

pest management practices (including pesticide use practices)

cropping, tillage and irrigation practices

Sensitivity / Vulnerability of Ground and Surface Water

Core Four


Pesticide environmental risk analysis
Pesticide Environmental Risk Analysis could make a sensitive site more or less susceptible to ground or surface water contamination

  • National assessments can be used to identify potential problem areas and set national workload priorities

  • Watershed level analysis can identify an appropriate set of management solutions

  • Field level analysis can appropriately apportion management solutions on a field by field basis

Core Four


Pesticide environmental risk analysis1
Pesticide Environmental Risk Analysis could make a sensitive site more or less susceptible to ground or surface water contamination

Field scale tools can be used to address identified resource concerns in targeted areas

The Windows Pesticide Screening Tool (WIN-PST) evaluates the potential for off-site pesticide movement on a field by field basis

Core Four


Pesticide environmental risk analysis2
Pesticide Environmental Risk Analysis could make a sensitive site more or less susceptible to ground or surface water contamination

WIN-PST is based on the NRCS Soil/Pesticide Interaction Screening Procedure (SPISP II) and National Agricultural Pesticide Risk Analysis (NAPRA) generic scenario results

WIN-PST can be downloaded fromftp.ma.nrcs.usda.gov\outgoing\WIN_PST

Core Four


Win pst soil pesticide interactions ratings
WIN-PST Soil/Pesticide Interactions Ratings could make a sensitive site more or less susceptible to ground or surface water contamination

Soil/Pesticide interaction ratings for all applicable soils and pesticides provide a means to evaluate the potential environmental risks associated with all recommended alternatives

Appropriate mitigation strategies should be matched with alternatives that have substantial environmental risk

Core Four


Pesticide trapping with conservation buffers
Pesticide Trapping with Conservation Buffers could make a sensitive site more or less susceptible to ground or surface water contamination

Pesticides vary in how tightly they are adsorbed to soil particles

Pesticide Koc values greater than 1000 indicate very strong adsorption to soil

Eroded soil carries the majority of this kind of chemical leaving fields in runoff

Conservation buffers that are effective in trapping sediment will trap these pesticides

Core Four


Pesticide trapping with conservation buffers1

Pesticides with lower Koc values (less than 300 to 500) tend to move more with water than adsorbed on sediment

To be effective in trapping this type of pesticide, buffers need to increase water infiltration or maximize contact of runoff with vegetation that may adsorb pesticide

Pesticide Trapping with Conservation Buffers

Core Four


Pesticide toxicity the dose makes the poison
Pesticide Toxicity: “The Dose Makes the Poison” to move more with water than adsorbed on sediment

Core Four


Toxicity measurements

RfD - reference dose (no effect dose) to move more with water than adsorbed on sediment

LD50 - lethal dose for 50%

LC50 - lethal concentration for 50%

HA - Health Advisory (Human Lifetime)

MCL - Maximum Contaminant Level (Human Lifetime)

MATC - Maximum Acceptable Toxicant Concentration (Fish Lifetime)

Toxicity Measurements

Core Four


Core Four to move more with water than adsorbed on sediment


Average annual pesticide runoff
Average Annual Pesticide Runoff to move more with water than adsorbed on sediment


Solution Runoff: Human Risk to move more with water than adsorbed on sediment


Other environmental risks of pest control
Other Environmental Risks of Pest Control to move more with water than adsorbed on sediment

Biological control:

Risk of introducing species without any natural predators

Risk of organism resistance to other forms of pest control

Risk of wide swings in pest population with poorly matched predator life cycles

Core Four


Other environmental risks of pest control1

Cultural control: to move more with water than adsorbed on sediment

Risk of fugitive dust with tillage used to control pests

Risk of air emissions with equipment operation

Risk of increased runoff and erosion with tillage

Risk of crop damage and beneficial organism disruption with mechanical control devices

Other Environmental Risks of Pest Control

Core Four


Stop to move more with water than adsorbed on sediment

Core Four


Core four pest management goals1
Core Four Pest Management Goals to move more with water than adsorbed on sediment

  • The pest management component of a conservation plan should enhance crop quality and quantity + minimize negative impacts to identified resource concerns

  • IPM should be utilized where it’s available

  • The conservation plan should be cooperatively developed with whoever makes pesticide recommendations

Core Four


To get the job done nrcs must1
To get the job done, NRCS must: to move more with water than adsorbed on sediment

  • Supplement recommendations made by others with environmental risk information

  • Help producers understand how pest management interrelates with climate, water management, crop management and soil management, so they can implement strategies to minimize potential impacts on non-target plants, animals and humans

Core Four


Core 4 and so much more we re here to help
Core 4 and so much more… We’re here to help! to move more with water than adsorbed on sediment

  • Aid in the development of State or local standards

  • Aid in the development of State or local Jobsheets

  • Assist State Trainers

  • Maintain and develop pesticide property, toxicity and EPA registration data

  • Train WIN-PST and NAPRA users

  • Perform NAPRA analysis in priority areas

Core Four


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