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Principles for teaching grammar. Integrate both inductive and deductive methods into your teaching (deductive – start with the presentation of a rule and follow it with examples in which the rule is applied; inductive – start with some examples from which a rule is inferred)

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Principles for teaching grammar

Principles for teaching grammar

Integrate both inductive and deductive methods into your teaching (deductive – start with the presentation of a rule and follow it with examples in which the rule is applied; inductive – start with some examples from which a rule is inferred)

Use tasks that make clear the relationship between grammatical form and communicative function (context is crucial)

Focus on the development of procedural rather than declarative knowledge (procedural – being able to use the knowledge for communication; declarative – knowing language rules)


Principles for beginning learners

Principles for beginning learners

Keep the learning load manageable (simplify and raise consciousness – help them perceive patterns and regularities)

Recycle (reintroduce grammar points at regular intervals in different communicative contexts)

Emphasize inductive over deductive teaching (rule-discovery over rule-driven)


Principles for intermediate learners

Principles for intermediate learners

Begin to move learners along the continuum from reproductive to creative use (mimic/copy > flexibility and imagination)

Where possible, personalize the content of practice activities (bring their own ideas, feelings, attitudes, and opinions)

Encourage learners to see grammar as a process as much as a product (“grammaring” > grammar is not just a thing, but something you do to communicate in a meaningful way)


Principles for advanced learners

Principles for advanced learners

Help learners to identify the relationship between grammar and discourse– written or spoken communication (help students know whether a sentence is appropriate given the context in which it appears)

Encourage learners to explore differences between spoken and written English (spoken and written grammar can be quite different)

Give learners systematic exposure to authentic language (help prepares students for dealing with language outside the classroom)


Tasks and materials

Tasks and materials

Fill-in-the-blanks (What…..you…..?)

Cloze procedure(words are deleted at a regular rate – 5th/7th)

Word scramble (born/you/the U.S./Were/in)

Conversation scramble(put a mixed-up conversation in order)

Sentence cues(I can/I can’t – write with both hands)

Error correction(It’s raining today. I’m needing my umbrella.)

Comprehension questions (how much/how many > a lot, a little, isn’t much, isn’t any, none – questions about your neighborhood: How many apartment buildings are there? How much traffic is there?)


Tasks and materials1

Tasks and materials

Drills (repetitive practice – substitution: I read a book yesterday > magazine > I read a magazine yesterday.)

Surveys (“Find someone who…” > Can you…? Are you…? Do you…?)

Information gaps (students have access to different information, and they have to use this information to, say, solve a problem)

Grammar dictation/Dictogloss

Games

Grammar charts (teacher explains the rules presented in the chart and then sets up exercises to practice those items – “Grammar in Use”)


Tasks and materials2

Tasks and materials

Role play (e.g. advice)

Projects (planning a trip)


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