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Teaching Grammar . Agenda . Pre Task Presenting grammar What approaches can be used to present new language structures? Presentation of grammar in textbooks Planning a grammar lesson. Discussion Questions .

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agenda
Agenda
  • Pre Task
  • Presenting grammar
  • What approaches can be used to present new language structures?
  • Presentation of grammar in textbooks
  • Planning a grammar lesson
discussion questions
Discussion Questions
  • Imagine you are trying to learn a new skill, which approach do you prefer: (to be told how it works- to be shown how it works- to read about the skill in a reference book- to try using the skill- a combination of these)
  • What is 'grammar'? What is the role of grammar in language teaching?
  • Do learners need to be able to describe language to be able to communicate in that language?
  • What are your lessons learned when you teach grammar? Tips for new teachers?
  • What are the best approaches to teach grammar? Inductive or deductive?
presenting grammar
Presenting Grammar
  • Watch the trainer presents grammar in three different approaches. As you watch, comment on the following points
  • What the approach is?
  • Use of visuals to convey meaning?
  • Sentence or discourse level grammar?
  • Meaningful or communicative?
what approaches can be used to present new language structures
What approaches can be used to present new language structures?
  • Visual/oral contexts
  • Texts
  • Short dialogues
  • Deductive/inductive approaches
  • Test-teach-test

In pairs, discuss the following:

  • How does the approach work?
  • When is the approach useful?
  • What are the disadvantages?
1a direct inductive
1A. Direct Inductive
  • Situation Examples Practice/Test
  • Good for: - early levels
  • presenting basic (oral) functions
  • presenting new structures where the concept is difficult e.g. present perfect.
  • Why?
  • the language is in a situation which demonstrates meaning and generalizes the new item.
  • the students are not confused by explanations but see the language in use.
1b direct deductive
1B. Direct Deductive
  • Examples Rules Practice/Test
  • Good for: - intermediate levels
  • presenting new structures where the form is the priority e.g. reported speech..
  • Why?
  • Students like the approach.
  • Economical in terms of time.
  • Rules are clearly stated from the start.
2a text based inductive
2A. Text Based Inductive
  • Listening/Reading Comprehension
  • Generates examples
  • Practice/Test
  • Here a text generates the new language (e.g. a series of disasters generates the 3rd conditional)
  • Good for: - all levels
  • new structures/new functions
  • revision of structures/functions
2b text based inductive
2B. Text Based Inductive
  • Listening/Reading Comprehension
  • Highlight examples
  • Rules
  • Practice/Test
  • Here the text contains the language item.
  • Better for revision/remedial work on structures/functions previously introduced as, if the language is new, students may be thrown by it. Good as the language is in a natural context which illustrates its use (concepts and forms).
3 test teach test pretest posttest
3. Test / Teach / Test (pretest- posttest)
  • Test (usually in exercise Teach Re-test
  • Good for: - higher levels
  • revising structures and clarify problem areas.
  • comparing/contrasting different tenses, for example present perfect vs. past simple.
  • Why? - it is economic, showing you what they do and don’t know. You
  • can base the “Teach” stage on what they don’t know..
  • It shows the students what they don’t know and makes them more amenable to revising something they feel they have already learnt.
presentation of grammar in textbooks
Presentation of grammar in textbooks
  • Examine a textbook for the presentation/practice activities in terms of:
  • repetitive: ( there is built-in repetition, the activity gives learners opportunity to use the new language item on several occasions)
  • Contextualized (the grammar is presented in a clear and sufficient context that makes form/meaning/use clear)
  • Interactive (the activity entails learners’ interaction in pairs or groups)
  • Communicative
  • Personalized (the activity can be extended to include personal needs of the learners)
  • Fun and ennoble
resources for further readings
Resources for further readings
  • Gover, R., Phillips, D. & Walters, S (2001). Teaching practice handbook. Macmillan. (Chapter 6 introduces a number of approaches for presenting and practice new language.)
  • Thornbury, S., & Watkins, P. (2007). The CELTA Course. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press. Chapters 7, 8, and 12 present ideas on practicing new language.
  • Harmer, Jeremy.( 2003). The practice of English language teaching. 3th ed. Pearson-Longman. (P 55-58). This section covers the stages in language learning with focus on differentiating non communicative from communicative activities. Also chapter 6 on 'introducing new language structures ' covers a variety of techniques in presenting and practice new structures.