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Teaching Grammar Communicatively. Marla Yoshida Fall 2012 http://teachesl.pbworks.com  Teaching Grammar. What does communicative language teaching mean?. We teach lessons that are student centered.

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teaching grammar communicatively

Teaching Grammar Communicatively

Marla Yoshida

Fall 2012

http://teachesl.pbworks.com

 Teaching Grammar

what does communicative language teaching mean
What does communicative language teaching mean?
  • We teach lessons that are student centered.
  • We create opportunities for students to use English actively to communicate and express their own ideas.
  • We create context for language use.
  • We help students reach beyond their comfort zone--to stretch their abilities and sometimes make mistakes.
  • We speak English as much as possible.
doesn t clt mean that we shouldn t teach grammar
Doesn’t CLT mean that we shouldn’t teach grammar?
  • No! Grammar and CLT can go hand-in-hand. We can teach grammar effectively using a common-sense communicative framework.
how do students learn grammar they need

Input

Output

How do students learn grammar? They need:

Explanations

Demonstrations

Examples

Quantity

Quality

teaching grammar is like teaching someone to play tennis
Teaching grammar is like teaching someone to play tennis.
  • It’s not enough to learn the rules.
  • It’s not enough to watch how-to videos.
  • It’s not enough to practice hitting the ball against a wall.
  • You have to really play the game, even if you make lots of mistakes at first.
1 introducing a new grammar point you can do it in english
1. Introducing a new grammar point: You can do it in English!
  • When you explain grammar in English, it should not be just a translation of what you would say in your native language.
  • Use less metalanguage.
  • Create context.
  • Show, don’t just tell.
many ways to introduce grammar
Many ways to introduce grammar…
  • Inductive or deductive?
    • Inductive: Students see or hear many examples using the grammar. They study them and figure out the rule for themselves.

(Inductive = moving into the rule.)

    • Deductive: Students learn a rule, then practice using it to make sentences.

(Deductive = moving from the rule.)

many ways to introduce grammar1
Many ways to introduce grammar…

Inductive

    • Today is Friday. Is today Friday?
    • We’re busy. Are we busy?
    • My brother is a student. Is my brother a student?
  • What’s the rule for making questions with this kind of sentence?
many ways to introduce grammar2
Many ways to introduce grammar…

Deductive

  • To change a sentence with a “be” verb into a question, the subject and verb change places.
    • Today is Friday. Is today Friday?
    • We’re busy. Are we busy?
    • My brother is a student. Is my brother a student?
many ways to introduce grammar3
Many ways to introduce grammar…
  • Create context.
  • Listen and do, act it out. Use pictures or real objects to show the meaning of the form.
  • Use a dialog, tell a story, or talk about an imaginary situation.
  • Explain the rule simply, clearly, and briefly. You don’t have to give every detail at once!K.I.S.S. = Keep it short and simple!
slide14
ContextFrom Understanding and Using English Grammar, Fourth Edition, by Betty S. Azar and Stacy A. Hagen, Pearson Longman, 2009

A little context 

No context 

Lots of metalanguage

lingua latina studemus
Lingua Latina studemus.

Ambulo.

Ambulamus.

Puellaambulat.

Puerambulat.

Non ambulo.

Pila non ambulat.

pila

puellapuer

Puellapilamiactat.

Puerpilamiactat.

Pilamiacto.

Pilamiactamus.

ambuloiacto, iactarecapto, captareportostudeo, studere ad puellam ad puerumdiscipulus/-um discipula/-am

2 practicing the new grammar
2. Practicing the new grammar
  • Use plenty of guided practice!
  • Create context. Make the language come alive!
  • Emphasize productive practice. (Students produce language on their own.)
  • It takes time! There’s a time lag between understanding and being able to produce language accurately and consistently.
what s wrong with this lesson plan
What’s wrong with this lesson plan?
  • Introduce the new grammar (“X is ---er than Y”) by talking about real objects. (“The book is bigger than the pencil.” “A kitten is cuter than a spider.”)
  • Give students a handout with sentences and have them fill in the blanks:
  • Mary is _______-er _______ John.
  • John is ________ ______ Bill.
  • Bill _____________________________.
  • ______________________________________.
what s wrong with this lesson plan1
What’s wrong with this lesson plan?

That’s right! We need more guided practice!

  • Introduce the new grammar (“X is ---er than Y”) by talking about real objects. (“The book is bigger than the pencil.” “A kitten is cuter than a spider.”)
  • Give students a handout with sentences and have them fill in the blanks:
  • Mary is _______-er _______ John.
  • John is ________ ______ Bill.
  • Bill _____________________________.
  • ______________________________________.
some ways to practice grammar
Some ways to practice grammar

Group guided practice as a class:

  • Questions and answers

…between teacher and students

…between students and students

  • Instructions using the grammar point
  • Descriptions using the grammar point
  • Chain questions
some ways to practice grammar1
Some ways to practice grammar

Guided practice (very simple at first):

  • Listen to a sentence and choose the correct picture
  • Fill-in-the-blank exercises
  • Change sentences from one form to another
  • Other very simple exercises—spoken or written
some ways to practice grammar2
Some ways to practice grammar

Guided practice (becoming more challenging):

  • Questions & answers about objects
  • Writing sentences about pictures
  • Changing a model dialog to fit students’ chosen meaning
  • Information gaps or jigsaws
  • Other activities requiring more thought
some ways to practice grammar3
Some ways to practice grammar

Independent practice:

  • Talking about pictures, other visual prompts
  • Role plays
  • Writing stories, dialogs, poems, etc.
  • Discussions
  • Problem solving
  • Sequencing, ranking, classifying
some ways to practice grammar4
Some ways to practice grammar

Independent practice:

  • Creating games and puzzles for classmates to try
  • Other activities requiring creative, independent language use
  • Games that provide good, solid language practice
in summary
In summary…

To teach grammar well, we need to…

  • make students notice the grammar and
  • practice it communicatively in many ways.