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Unit 2 - Unequal spaces. Recognising inequalities. Inequality. Inequality between different groups of people can be measured and thought of in different ways It is about unevenness- the ‘haves’ and the ‘have-nots’ Often we think about quality of life and standard of living

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unit 2 unequal spaces

Unit 2 - Unequal spaces

Recognising inequalities

inequality
Inequality
  • Inequality between different groups of people can be measured and thought of in different ways
  • It is about unevenness- the ‘haves’ and the ‘have-nots’
  • Often we think about quality of life and standard of living
  • Also income distribution, health and access to opportunities.
what do we mean by an inequality
What do we mean by an inequality?
  • Remember PEST! See pg 252 Philip Allan

ECONOMIC INEQUALITY

INSTITUTIONALISED INEQUALITY(Political)

INEQUALITY

TECHNOLOGICAL INEQUALITY

SOCIAL INEQUALITY

unpacking the idea of unequal spaces different types of inequality
Unpacking the idea of unequal spaces: different types of inequality

Inequality exists as the distribution of resources, wealth and opportunities is not evenly spread. In other words, how easy or difficult it is to get access to resources etc. Different groups will find it easier or harder to access certain resources .

what are your experiences of inequality
What are your experiences of inequality?

Mine!

  • Copacabana beach front hotels v Rocinhafavela in Rio 20 minutes away on a bus!
  • Teacher’s salary and cleaner in a school in Bangkok
  • My private school v local school in Bath
  • University dissertation interviewing disabled v ‘able’
to what extent do you agree with this quote
To what extent do you agree with this quote:

‘The Richest Kids will play video games full of virtual violence whilst the poorest kids live in shanty-cities full of actual violence’

James Martin, The Meaning of the 21st Century

slide8

Should classifying inequality be done according to PEST factors, or to scale (personal, local, regional, national, global)?

10 qs of inequality match with the correct answers
10 Qs of inequality! Match with the correct answers
  • World poorest 40 % account for __% of global income 
  • There are __,00 billionnaires in the world
  •  Just under __ billion people entered the 21st century unable to read a book / sign their names
  • In Swaziland almost ___% of people have HIV, highest in the world
  • Life expectancy in Kerala is 73 years compared to ___ in Bihar
  • ___% of the world’s population live in India
  • __% of Spain’s population would describe themselves as happy
  •  The Index of Segregation for AfricanAmericans is ___
  •  There is a £___,000 difference in average salary between Surrey and Cornwall
  • Brick Lane, London has a ___% Asian / Asian British population

16 5 17 10

38 91 12 59 65 1

answers
Answers!
  • World poorest 40 % account for __% of global income

5

  •  There are __,00 billionnaires in the world

12

  •  Just under __ billion people entered the 21st century unable to read a book / sign their names

1

  • In Swaziland almost ___% of people have HIV, highest in the world

38

  •  Life expectancy in Kerala is 73 years compared to ___ in Bihar

59

  •  ___% of the world’s population live in India

17

  •  __% of Spain’s population would describe themselves as happy

10

  •  The Index of Segregation for AfricanAmericans is ___

91

  •  There is a £___,000 difference in average salary between Surrey and Cornwall

16

  •  Brick Lane has a ___% Asian / Asian British population
  • 65
match up the definitions below with these key words
Match up the definitions below with these key words

Absolute poverty Deprivation Disparity Affluence

Relative poverty Standard of living Quality of life

  • The ability to obtain good and services through employment, income and wealth eg number of foreign holidays, quality and size of house, car ownership.
  • An abundant supply of money, goods and property.
  • There is an inequality or difference in income, status or opportunity - usually with spatial consequences.
  • A condition characterised by the lack of the most basic human needs, including food, safe drinking water, sanitation, education, housing etc. People are deprived of one or more of these basic human needs.
  • Lacking in relation to the standards that exist elsewhere in society. People are in the lowest income group and so may have inadequate housing, diet, amenities and services.
  • Lacking the resources to enjoy the living conditions and amenities usually experienced by those in the society they belong too. They may not have adequate housing, sufficient food or access to employment.
  • Cannot be measured just in terms of income and wealth. It is about access to services, personal satisfaction, the environment, peacefulness and sense of community.
did you get them
Did you get them?
  • Standard of living - The ability to obtain good and services through employment, income and wealth eg number of foreign holidays, quality and size of house, car ownership.
  • Affluence – An abundant supply of money, goods and property.
  • Disparity - There is an inequality or difference in income, status or opportunity - usually with spatial consequences.
  • Absolute poverty – A condition characterised by the lack of the most basic human needs, including food, safe drinking water, sanitation, education, housing etc. People are deprived of one or more of these basic human needs.
  • Relative poverty - Lacking in relation to the standards that exist elsewhere in society. People are in the lowest income group and so may have inadequate housing, diet, amenities and services.
  • Deprivation-Lacking the resources to enjoy the living conditions and amenities usually experienced by those in the society they belong too. They may not have adequate housing, sufficient food or access to employment.
  • Quality of life - Cannot be measured just in terms of income and wealth. It is about access to services, personal satisfaction, the environment, peacefulness and sense of community.
billionaires
Billionaires
  • According to Forbes magazine released 2012 there are 1,226 Billionaires, and despite the financial turmoil witnessed last year, the tally was 1 percent higher than the previous year’s number.
  • The group’s total combined net worth is $4.6 trillion, almost the size of Russia and Germany’s GDP combined. The average worth of a listed billionaire is $3.7 billion.
  • Mexican telecom mogul Carlos Slim retained his status as the world’s richest person for the third year in a row, topping the list with a net worth of $69 billion.
  • Microsoft co-founder Bill Gates took second spot with $61 billion while Berkshire Hathaway’s Warren Buffett ranked third with $44 billion.
others
Others….
  • There are around 7 million millionaires
  • BUT it is a world of extremes!!!!
  • The poorest 40% of the world’s population only has 5% of global income
  • The richest 10% have 54% of the global income
  • 1.1 billion people live on less than a dollar a day
  • 2.7 billion live on less than 2 dollars a day
animation income across the world
Animation – income across the world
  • http://www.worldmapper.org/animations/income_animation.html
absolute poverty
Absolute poverty
  • Living on the equivalent of US$2 a day or less. In 2002, 43% of the world population lived on this little. In both Nigeria and Mali, 9 of every ten people survives on less than US$2 a day.
  • South America has a relatively small poor population, yet 39 million people have less than US$2 a day in Brazil.
slide19

If 1% of the world’s money spent on weapons by 2005 was used for education every child of primary school age could have attended school

  • The richest 50 million people in Europe and North America have the same income as 2.7 billion poor people
  • The 48 poorest countries only have 0.4% of world exports
  • 12% of the world’s people (in MEDCs) use 85% of the water
  • More than 800 million suffer from malnutrition
  • 1,1 billion do not have access to clean drinking water
  • 1200 children die every minute from preventable diseases.
how rich are you
How rich are you?
  • http://globalrichlist.com/
hiv prevalence
HIV prevalence
  • HIV, or Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection, attacks the immune system. It eventually causes AIDS, which stands for Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome. With cases first recognised in the United States in 1981, AIDS increases the risk of many infections and tumours.
  • In 2003, the highest HIV prevalence was Swaziland, where 38%, or almost 4 in every 10 people aged 15 to 49 years, were HIV positive. All ten territories with the highest prevalence of HIV are in Central and Southeastern Africa.
  • Transmission of HIV is through sex, using infected needles and in the womb. Infected children are not shown here. HIV/AIDS often has an acquired social stigma.
adult literacy
Adult Literacy
  • About a billion people cannot read a book
  • Worldwide, 3.6 billion adults are literate; 82% of the adult population are able to read and write simple statements. Here adults include people aged 15 years and over.
  • The percentage of literate adults is lower than that of literate youth in every region of the world.
  • The largest populations of literate adults live in China, India and the United States. India has a literacy rate of 61%, the other two territories have rates of 91%.
animation internet users across the world
Animation - Internet users across the world
  • http://www.worldmapper.org/animations/internet_users_animation.html
personal inequalities
Personal inequalities

Internet speed!!!

  • P254 Philip Allan
  • Also of interest….internet use in Greece

http://www.statistics.gr/portal/page/portal/ESYE/BUCKET/A1901/PressReleases/A1901_SFA20_DT_AN_00_2012_01_F_EN.pdf

processes leading to inequality
Processes leading to inequality?

Many of the processes leading to inequality are interlinked

slide29

Inequality, social exclusion and polarisation (increasing differences between different parts of society) can be divisive and socially damaging

At the global scale there is much inequality with Mexico at the top of the league. Britain's inequality is well above the average for OECD nations, far greater than Sweden, Denmark, Holland, France or Germany

http://www.bbc.co.uk/blogs/thereporters/markeaston/2010/01/is_inequality_iniquitous.html

the negative multiplier effect p 204 pearson
The negative multiplier effect - p 204 Pearson
  • Myrdal same up with cumulative causation theory and this is the opposite:
reading and notes
Reading and notes…
  • Read Pearson p 204-212 and write notes!!!!
  • Have a look at living conditions in GREECE (published in Jan 2013)

http://www.statistics.gr/portal/page/portal/ESYE/PAGE-livingcond/content/LivingConditionsInGreece_0113.pdf