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Unit 2 Green Spaces in Cities. 江西信息应用职业技术学院 孙敏. Teaching context. Time Allotment: Unit 2 Section B (50 m) Chapter : Green Spaces in Cities Teaching aims : The teaching of this text aims to enable students: to master the new words and useful phrases.

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slide1

Unit 2 Green Spaces in Cities

江西信息应用职业技术学院

孙敏

teaching context
Teaching context
  • Time Allotment: Unit 2 Section B (50 m)
  • Chapter:Green Spaces in Cities
  • Teaching aims:The teaching of this text aims to enable students:
  • to master the new words and useful phrases.
  • to get acquainted with skills of reading paragraphs with a general statement that is supported by specific details.
  • to get acquainted with skills of reading for main ideas.
  • to practice what has been learned.
slide3
Teaching important and difficult points:

learning the ways of reading skills from the passages

learning the new words and useful expressions in the text

doing the relevant exercises after the classes

Teaching context

teaching context4
Teaching context
  • Teaching methods:
  • utilizing the multi-media classroom to show courseware for students
  • listening and reading the words, useful expressions and text from the teaching CD
  • Learning these courses as following: http://www.jxcia.com/e-corner/
reading skills
Reading Skills
  • Finding Out Word Meanings

What shall we do when we come across unfamiliar words in our reading? Many times we can figure out the meaning of an unfamiliar word from clues provided by context. The particular reading skill introduced for this unit is finding out word meanings through context clues. In the text we list as many as 7 different ways of finding out the meaning of an unfamiliar word. The context clues that might be helpful for you to recognize the meaning of a new word include:

reading skills6
Reading Skills
  • Some sentences give the definition for a difficult word with the help of punctuation such as commas, dashes or parentheses.
  • Context sometimes gives examples to illustrate a difficult word rather than define it. We can use the examples to figure out the meaning of an unfamiliar word.
reading skills7
Reading Skills
  • Synonyms (同义词) are words or phrases that are similar in meaning. A synonym is one type of context clue that helps you to determine the meanings of unfamiliar words.
reading skills8
Reading Skills
  • Antonym (反义词) clues. Antonyms are words or phrases that have opposite meanings to other words or phrases. Antonym clues can help you understand new words.
  • Sentences before or after a sentence that has a difficult word sometimes explain the meaning of the word.
reading skills9
Reading Skills
  • Sometimes we can use our own experiences, or our knowledge about a certain topic, to find out the meaning of an unfamiliar word.
  • Word part clues. We can often figure out an unfamiliar word because we know the prefix or suffix attached to the root word, or the two words that make up a compound word.
reading skills10
Reading Skills
  • Here we have picked out some examples from Reading Passage A to explain how this particular reading skill is used in practice.

Example 1

  • Context clue: We can often figure out an unfamiliar word because we know the prefix or suffix attached to the root word.
  • Example: The great majority of nations concern themselves with economic development, regardless of its effect on the global ecology.
  • Explanation: We can find out the meaning of the new word global, because we know that this adjective is formed by adding the suffix -al to the noun globe.
reading skills11
Reading Skills

Example 2

  • Context clue: Sentences before or after a sentence containing a difficult word sometimes explain the meaning of the word.
  • Example: The nations of Eastern Europe ... are considered the most polluted of all the world’s industrialized countries. Heavy metals from coal mining have contaminated much of the area’s waters. Rivers, land, and forests are so contaminated that many are now biologically dead.
  • Explanation: The sentence before and after the sentence which contains contaminated both help us to find out the meaning of the word, that is, polluted or made dirty.
reading skills12
Reading Skills

Example 3

  • Context clue: Sentences before or after a sentence containing a difficult word sometimes explain the meaning of the word.
  • Example: Ghana’s population has been growing by 3.2 percent a year. This explosive growth has led to removal of forests in much of the country, and excessive use of existing farmland.
  • Explanation: The first sentence says: Ghana’s population has been growing by 3.2 percent a year. This clearly explains that “this explosive growth” in the second sentence means “rapid growth”.
reading skills13
Reading Skills

Example 4

  • Context clue: Sometimes we can use our own experiences, or our knowledge about a certain topic, to find out the meaning of an unfamiliar word.
  • Example: Indonesians have traditionally favored large families, and their major religion, Islam, frowns on birth control.
  • Explanation: According to our knowledge about Islam (and what is said in the first part of the sentence), we know that frown on most probably means does not approve of.
reading skills14
Reading Skills

Example 5

  • Context clue: We can often figure out an unfamiliar word because we know the prefix or suffix attached to the root word.
  • Example: Observers say the program has succeeded in strengthening the country’s agricultural base and bringing a new source of wealth to villagers.
  • Explanation: This noun is formed by adding the suffix -er to the already familiar verb observe, so we can find out the meaning of the word: someone who observes.
the practice of reading skills
The Practice of Reading Skills
  • Warm-up Questions and lead-in:

Ss do the relevant exercises in Reading Skills, then T check the right answers for reference:

1.A 2.D 3.B 4.A 5.C

preview
Preview
  • Environmental awareness takes second place to economic development in most nations of the world. As damage to our environment increases, however, some nations are developing programs to protect their natural resources.
  • The passage tell us how some cities have begun to increase the amount of green spaces in balance with nature or we will destroy the earth home we share.
background information
Background Information
  • Founded in 1972, the Trust for Public Land (TPL) is the only national nonprofit organization of America, working only to protect land for human enjoyment and health. TPL helps protect land for recreation and soul food and to improve the health and quality of life of American communities.
  • Portland, a seaport in U.S.A., is the largest city of Maine.
  • Maine is a state on the northeastern coast of the U.S.A.. Augusta is its capital. It is very hilly, with the White Mountain lying in the west. Maine was visited by Cabot in 1498, and colonized by the English in the 17th and 18th century. It became the 23rd state of the U.S.A. in 1820.
background information18
Background Information
  • Portland Parks and Recreation Department is a city government department. Parks and Recreation Department can be found at all levels of governments in the U.S., whose mission is usually to assure access to leisure opportunities, enhancing natural beauty and promoting tourism.
  • The Pacific Ocean is the largest ocean, separating America from Asia and Australia. Its length is 15,000km. Its width from Panama to Malaya is 18,000km. With its coasts it makes up a great volcanic area.
background information19
Background Information
  • Phoenix, the capital and largest city of Arizona, U. S.A., is the center of an irrigated agricultural district as well as electrical and electronic engineering, farm machinery, aircraft, food processing, metallurgy, and tourism.
  • Arizona is a state in the southwestern U.S.A.. Its capital is Phoenix. It is divided by mountains with a high plateau in the northeast and desert in the southwest. The U.S.A. acquired most of the state from Mexico in 1848, and the rest as part of the Gadsden Purchase in 1854. It became the 48th state of the U.S.A. in 1912.
  • Salt River in this text refers to the Salt River lying in the middle east of Arizona. Another one is located in the middle north of Kentucky. Still there is another one in the northeast of Missouri.
background information20
Background Information
  • Baltimore is a port and import-export center of Maryland, U.S.A., on an inlet from the Chesapeake Bay.
  • Lying at the base of the San Francisco Peaks at a height of 7,000 feet above sea level, Flagstaff offers four distinctive seasons of weather, great hiking and outdoor recreation opportunities, a rich and diverse art and culture community. The quality of life in Flagstaff is so near perfect that each year it is judged one of the top cities in which to live.
  • The San Francisco Peaks is the mountain that lies at the north of Flagstaff, Arizona. It is the highest place in Flagstaff.
learning the text
Learning the text
  • Warm-up Questions and lead-in:
  • Ss read the text with 4 questions, then T ask Ss to answer them.

1.What do most countries concern themselves with?

2. Why and how do people change their attitudes towards increasing green spaces?

3.How did Portland increase its green spaces?

4.What measures did other countries take to increase theirs green spaces?

new words and phrases
New Words and Phrases
  • container
  • amateur
  • gardener
  • pea
  • salad
  • costly
  • ditch
  • lorry
  • erect
  • Mister
  • Vice
  • Nineteen
  • vacant
  • rare
  • option
  • enormous
  • private
  • ownership
  • literally
  • urban
  • pave
  • mud
  • childhood
  • bulb

Next step

new words and phrases23
New Words and Phrases
  • conservation
  • trail
  • characterize
  • housing
  • recreation
  • acre
  • canal
  • excursion
  • comparable
  • strip
  • summit
  • plot
  • civilian
  • open field
  • in fact
  • on top of
  • work on
  • power line
  • coordinate one’s efforts to
  • clean up
  • up to
  • for instance
  • wash away
  • lead into
vacant
vacant
  • a.
  • 1. not filled or occupied; empty 未被占用的,空着的

There are several vacant plots in the area available for building on.

那个地区还有好几块地皮可以用来造房子。

  • 2. (position or post) unfilled (职位、工作等)空缺的

Today there are thought to be about 100 full-time posts vacant.

今天据称大约有100个全日工作岗位空缺。

  • 3. showing no interest or activity 茫然的,空虚的

His mind seemed completely vacant.

他的脑子里似乎一片空白。

slide25
rare
  • a.
  • 1. not often happening or seen, etc.; not common 稀有的,罕见的;冷僻的It is rare for her to arrive late.她极少迟到。
  • 2. not common and as a result sometimes valuable 稀罕的,珍奇的The museum is full of rare and precious treasures. 博物馆里到处是稀有珍宝。
option
option
  • n.
  • 1. thing that is or may be chosen; choice供选择的事物,可选择的事物;选择There weren‘t many options open to him.

对他来说,没有多少选择的余地。

  • 2. power or freedom of choosing; choice 选择权,选择自由,选择I have little option but to go. 我没有选择,只能走。
enormous
enormous
  • a. very large 巨大的,庞大的,极大的He earns enormous pay, so he can live in an enormous house and drive an enormous car. 他工资很高,所以他住大房子,开大车。

It gives me enormous pleasure to welcome Professor Hall. 欢迎霍尔教授使我极感愉快。

private
private
  • a.
  • 1. of, belonging to or for the use of one particular person or group only; personal私人的,个人的,私用的,私有的She never spoke about her past or her private life. 她从未谈起过她的过去或她的私生活。
  • 2. not to be told to others; secret 秘密的,私下的This letter is strictly private. 这封信是绝密的。
  • 3. of, belonging to or run by an individual or a self-governed company rather than the State; not state-controlled

私营的,私立的,非国家控制的Banks should be supporting small, private businesses. 银行应该支持小型私营企业。

ownership
ownership
  • n. state of being an owner; (right of) possession物主身份,拥有(权)The restaurant is under new ownership. 这家饭店已换了新主人。The ownership of the land was transferred to John Smith. 那块土地的所有权转让给了约翰·史密斯。
literally
literally
  • ad. in a way that follows exactly the original; exactly 照字义,逐字地,真正地When he said he never wanted to see you again I‘m sure he didn’t mean it literally. 当他说他再也不想见你时,我肯定他并不真的是那个意思。

Idioms usually cannot be translated literally in another language. 成语通常不能用另一种语言逐字翻译。

urban
urban
  • a. of, located in or living in a city or town 都市的,位于都市的,住在都市的the urban population 城镇人口He prefers country life to urban life. 他喜欢乡村生活而不喜欢城市生活。
slide32
pave
  • vt. cover (a surface) with flat stones or bricks or tar

给(道路路面)铺上石板或砖

The country boys thought the streets of London were paved with gold.

乡村青年以为伦敦遍地是黄金。

slide33
mud
  • n. soft wet earth 湿泥,泥

The rain turned dust into mud.

雨把灰尘变成了湿泥。

My shoes were covered with mud.

我的鞋上沾满了泥。

container
container
  • n. box, bottle, etc. in which sth. is kept, transported, etc.容器(箱、瓶等)

She kept the buttons in an old ice-cream container.

她把纽扣放在一个旧冰淇淋盒里。

amateur
amateur
  • a. taking part in an activity for pleasure, not as a job, or (of an activity) done for pleasure, not as a job

业余的,非专业的

Lawton was an amateur singer until the age of 40, when he turned professional.

劳顿本是个业余歌手,直到40岁才成为专业歌手。

  • n. person who practices a sport or arts skill without receiving money for it

(指不为赚钱而从事体育或艺术的)业余爱好者

Although he's only an amateur he's a first class player.

虽然他只个是业余爱好者,可他却是个一流的选手。

gardener
gardener
  • n. person who works in a garden, either for pay or as a hobby

(因爱好或挣钱) 在花园从事劳动的人,园丁

I'm not much of a gardener.

我不很擅长园艺。

Our new garden is so big that we have had to hire a gardener.

我们的新花园很大,因此我们必须雇一个园艺工。

costly
costly
  • a. costing much; expensive

昂贵的,代价高的

It would be too costly to repair the car.

这辆汽车修理起来费用太高了。

Our holiday in Australia was very costly.

我们在澳大利亚度假开销很大。

erect
erect
  • vt.
  • 1. build, set up; establish 建造,建立,竖立

They plan to erect an office building there.

他们打算在那儿建造一幢办公大楼。

  • 2. set straight up; put up 树立,直立

The pole was erected on a firm base.

这根杆子竖立在坚固的基座上。

  • a. standing on end 竖直的,挺直的,直立的

He's very tall and erect for his 78 years.

他虽然已 78岁了,但依然个头高挺,腰杆笔直。

slide39
vice
  • a. acting instead of 代理的,副的vice president 副总统,副社长,副会长

Geraldine Ferraro tried to become the first woman Vice President of the US, but did not succeed.

杰拉尔丁.范拉露想成为美国第一位女性副总统, 但没成功。

conservation
conservation
  • n. prevention of loss, waste, damage, destroying, etc.      保护,保存, 节省wildlife conservation  野生动物保护

As well as helping the environment, energy conservation reduces your fuel bills.

节省能源不但有利于环境,还能减少你的燃料支出。

trail
trail
  • n.
  • 1. path, esp. through country 小道,崎岖小路

Keep to the trail; if you leave it, you'll get lost.

沿着这条小路走;假如偏离它,你就会迷路的。

  • 2. mark or sign in the form of a long line left by sth. or sb. passing by 踪迹,痕迹

The hunters followed the tiger's trail. 猎人们跟踪追捕老虎。

  • v.
  • 1. drag; be dragged along behind 拖,拉,下垂

Her skirt was trailing along in the mud. 她的长裙在泥里拖地向前。

  • 2. fall behind (在比赛中)落后,失利

They trailed by two goals to one at half-time. 他们上半场以二比一落后。

  • vt. follow the trail of; track 追踪,尾随

Hunters can trail wild animals through the forest.

猎人能在森林里跟踪野生动物。

characterize
characterize
  • vt.
  • 1. be common to (sb./sth.)

成为... ...的特征,以... ...为特征

Bright colors characterize his early paintings.

色彩明亮是他早期绘画的特点。

The education approach there is characterized by an emphasis on success in exams.

重视考试是那里的教育制度的特点。

  • 2. describe … by stating its main qualities

描绘(人或物的)特征,归纳(人或物的)特征

The story characterizes the wolf as a tricky and cruel animal.

这个故事把狼描绘成一种狡猾和残酷的野兽。

housing
housing
  • n.
  • 1. houses, flats, etc.

住宅或公寓,住宿(集合名词)

The government has promised to provide cheap housing for poor people.

政府许诺为穷人提供价廉的住房。

  • 2. providing houses or flats for people

提供住宿,住房供给

the city's housing policy城市的住房政策

recreation
recreation
  • n. (means of) entertaining oneself after work; relaxation 休养,娱乐,消遣,精神放松

My favorite recreation is singing.

我最喜欢的娱乐是唱歌。

I climb mountains for recreation.

我爬山是为了消遣。

excursion
excursion
  • n. short journey for pleasure 短途旅行,远足

Next week we are going on a day excursion to the mountains.

下个星期我们打算作一次登山一日游。

An optional excursion has been organized for every day of your holiday to a nearby place of interest.

你们假期的每一天都组织有到附近某个景点去的自愿远足活动。

compared
compared
  • a.
  • 1. similar, that can be compared, equal to 相似的,同类的

A comparable car would be much cheaper out of the country.

一辆类似的汽车在国外要便宜多了。

  • 2. meriting being compared 可比的,比得上的

The profits of these two companies are not comparable with each other.

这两个公司的利润相互之间没有可比性。

strip
strip
  • long narrow piece (of material, etc.) or area (of land, etc.)

狭长的一块(材料)或一片(土地)

a strip of paper 一张纸片

We lost thousands of soldiers in the war and all we got was this narrow strip of land in return.

我们在战争中失去了数千名士兵,可得到的却只是一块狭窄的土地

strip48
strip
  • vi. take off one's clothes 脱去衣服

The doctor asked the patient to strip.

医生让病人脱去衣服。

  • vt.
  • 1. take off (clothes, parts, etc.) from sb./ sth.

剥去,揭去,除去(衣服、遮蔽物、某部分)

The paint will be difficult to strip off.

这层漆面很难除去。

  • 2. take away (money, honors, etc.) from sb. 剥夺... ...的(钱财、荣誉等)

When the athlete was found to have taken drugs, he was stripped of his gold medal.

一旦获得金牌的运动员被发现了服用违禁药物,他的冠军头衔立即被取消。

summit
summit
  • n.
  • 1. highest point; top, esp. of a mountain

最高点,(尤指山的)顶,绝顶

He is now at the summit of his career.

他目前正值事业的顶峰时期。

  • 2. meeting between the heads of two or more governments, esp. of the world's most powerful countries

两国或两国以上(尤指世界上最强的国家)政府首脑的最高级会谈

the summit powers参加最高级会议的大国

slide50
plot
  • n.
  • 1. small marked or measured piece of land, esp. for a special purpose (尤指用于某特定目的) 小块土地, 小块地皮

a building plot 建筑用地

  • 2. (plan or sketch of the) events in the story of a play or novel

(戏剧或小说的故事)情节

She began to tell me the plot in great detail.

她开始向我详细讲述那个情节。

  • 3. secret plan made by several people to do sth. 秘密计划,阴谋

The plot was discovered in time. 阴谋被及时发现。

  • v. make a secret plan (to do sth.); plan (sth.) with others 密谋,计划

The army is plotting the takeover of the government.

军队密谋推翻政府。

civilian
civilian
  • n. person not serving in the armed forces or the police force 平民

Two soldiers and one civilian were killed in the explosion.

在爆炸中有两名士兵和一名平民丧生。

He left the army and returned to civilian life.

他离开军队重返平民生活。

open field
field which is not covered with trees, etc. 旷野

It isn't a very good idea to camp in the middle of an open field.

在旷野中宿营不是一个好主意

open field
in fact
in fact
  • in truth; really 事实上,实际上

For eight years she was in fact living in the countryside.

事实上,八年来她是住在乡下。

on top of
over or above

在... ...之上

Put the letter on top of that pile of books, where it can be seen easily.

把这封信放在那堆书上面,这样容易被看到。

on top of
work on
work on
  • Give one's attention to doing or trying to do

致力于

You will have to work on the weak points in your English if you want to pass the examination.

假如你想通过考试,就得努力攻克你英语方面的薄弱环节。

coordinate one s efforts to
work together efficiently

齐心协力

We must coordinate our efforts to help the poor.

我们必须齐心协力去帮助穷人。

coordinate one’s efforts to
clean up
clean up
  • make a place clean by removing the dirt

清扫,收拾,清理

The workers cleaned up before they left.

工人们把一切收拾得整整齐齐之后才走。

This room needs cleaning up.

这个房间需要彻底打扫了。

up to
reach a certain number or amount 多达,直到

Research suggests that up to two thousand people have taken this drug.

研究表明多达两千人已经服用了这种药物。

up to
for instance
for instance
  • as an example; for example 例如

Several of his friends came: Ben, Carol and Mike, for instance.

他的几个朋友来了,例如,本、卡罗尔和迈克。

wash away
(of water) remove or carry sb./sth. away to another place

(指水)洗掉,冲走

The banks are being slowly washed away by the sea.

海岸正逐渐被海水冲蚀。

wash away
lead to
lead to
  • (of a road, etc.) provide a way (for sb.) to enter ( a place) 通往,通向

This path leads halfway into the forest and then strops.

这条小路通到森林的中部就断了。

learning the text62
Learning the text
  • Listening and reading the text. Lead-in
  • Where do children play? Years ago, any open field, any vacant lot, any group of trees -- these were the places where children played. As families left family farms, small towns, and the countryside, and moved into cities, the places for their children to play in became rarer. Children in the cities had few options, fewer choices of places to play.

Next step

text structure analysis
Text Structure Analysis
  • Years ago, any open field, any vacant lot, any group of trees –these were the places where children played. (Para.1)
  • Meaning: Quite a few years before now, children amused themselves at games in any area that was not closed in, not occupied for any particular purposes such as for building or parking cars on, or was only planted with trees.
text structure analysis64
Text Structure Analysis
  • … any vacant lot… (Para.1)

vacant: a.

    • not filled or occupied, empty

The hospital has no vacant beds.

那家医院已没有空床位了。

There are several vacant plots available for building on in the area.

那个地区还有好几块空地皮可以用来造房子。

In some cities there are more vacant buildings than can house homeless people.

在有些城市,空置的楼房比物价可归的人需要的住房还多。

text structure analysis65
Text Structure Analysis
  • (position or post) unfilled, not filled at present

Today there are thought to be about 100full-time posts vacant.

据称今天大约有100个全日工作岗位空缺。

The post of chairman has been vacant for some time.

主席的职位已孔雀一段时间了。

The top post in the company was still vacant.

公司的最高职位仍旧空着。

text structure analysis66
Text Structure Analysis
  • (of one’s look or expression) showing no interest or activity, suggesting that sb. does not understand sth. or that he is not thinking about anything in particular

She has a vacant look on her face.

她的脸上是一片茫然的神色。

His mind seemed completely vacant.

他的脑子里似乎一片空白。

text structure analysis67
Text Structure Analysis
  • … any vacant lot … (Para.1)

Lot: n. a small area or land that belongs to a person or company, esp. one for a particular purpose such as for building or parking cars on; used mainly in American English

There is a parking lot around the corner.

拐角处有一个停车场。

If oil or gold is discovered under your lot, you can sell the mineral rights.

如果在属于你的地皮下面发现石油或黄金,你可以出售开采权。

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Text Structure Analysis
  • … the places for their children to play in became rarer. (Para.1)

rare: a.

  • not often happening or seen, etc.; not common

It’s rare to find these birds in England, but there is a small population of them in the northwest.

在英格兰很少发现这些鸟类,但在西北部有一小群。

It is rare for her to arrive late.她极少迟到。

  • not common and as a result sometimes valuable

a book of rare value 珍本书

The museum is full of rare and precious treasures.

博物馆里到处是稀有珍宝。

text structure analysis69
Text Structure Analysis
  • Children in the cities had few options, fewer choices of places to play. (Para.1)

option: n.

[C] a thing that is or may be chosen; a choice

Make a list of the various options.把各种选择列一张表出来。

There weren’t many options open to him.

对他来说,没有多少选择的余地。

I am keeping my options open. I have not made a decision on either matter.

我保留选择的权利,对于两者我还没有做出决定。

2) [U] power or freedom of choosing; choice

I have little option but to go.我没有选择,只能走。

We have no option but to leave the meeting.

除了放弃这次会议,我们没有别的选择。

conclusion
Conclusion
  • Everyone has responsible for contributing the city to be a garden.

 创建花园式、园林化城市,人人有责!

  • Protecting the environment, starts from you and me.

保护环境,从你我做起.

  • Green spaces is the heart of our city.

绿地是城市的“绿肺”.

homework
Homework
  • Do all the exercises of Unit two
  • Writing: Do a composition about environment (protect or fight against), showing your ideas and making them clear, interesting and convincing. Specific details can be an illustration, a case or explanations.
  • Preview the next unit.
  • Visiting and listening the teaching platform;http://www.jxcia.com/e-corner/