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Lexicography Course Introduction

Lexicography Course Introduction

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Lexicography Course Introduction

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  1. Lexicography Course Introduction Olga Pascari

  2. Linguists, who for a long time equated linguistics with syntax and viewed the lexicon as merely a convenient storage place for exceptions to syntactic rules, have finally discovered that much of the rest of the world is convinced that language resides in the lexicon and that the function of syntax is to provide a place to record lexical regularities. --Martha Evens Evens, Martha Walton. 1988. Introduction. Relational models of the lexicon, ed. by Martha Walton Evens, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 1.

  3. What is lexicography? • The study of words. • The study of the mental lexicon. • The study of dictionaries and their production.

  4. Topics to be covered: • Lexicology (lexical theory) • Semantic theory • Database structure • Lexicography (practical methodology) • Computer programs • Practical applications

  5. Goal of the course: • We think we know what you need to know; • We need to know what you already know; • We want to know what you want to know; • So that we can teach you what you really need to know. • We are here to serve you.

  6. The big picture • When we look at a dictionary entry, we see that lexicography integrates the branches of linguistics. Ortho-graphy Phon-etics Phon-ology Gram-mar Sem-antics Texts Socio-ling. Histori-cal Ling. Anthropology

  7. American Heritage Dictionary entry for ‘gaze’ (slightly modified) gaze (gāz) vi. gazed, gazing, gazes. To look intently or with fixed attention; to stare. n. A steady, fixed look. Gaze usually refers to prolonged and studied looking, often indicative of wonder, fascination, awe, or admiration. cf. gape, glare, peer, ogle. [Middle English gazen, probably from Scandanavian, akin to Swedish dialectal gasa.] gazer n.

  8. Orthography gaze (gāz) vi. gazed, gazing, gazes. To look intently or with fixed attention; to stare. n. A steady, fixed look. Gaze usually refers to prolonged and studied looking, often indicative of wonder, fascination, awe, or admiration. cf. gape, glare, peer, ogle. [Middle English gazen, probably from Scandanavian, akin to Swedish dialectal gasa.] gazer n.

  9. Phonology/Phonetics gaze(gāz)vi. gazed, gazing, gazes. To look intently or with fixed attention; to stare. n. A steady, fixed look. Gaze usually refers to prolonged and studied looking, often indicative of wonder, fascination, awe, or admiration. cf. gape, glare, peer, ogle. [Middle English gazen, probably from Scandanavian, akin to Swedish dialectal gasa.] gazer n.

  10. Morpho-syntax gaze (gāz) vi.gazed, gazing, gazes. To look intently or with fixed attention; to stare. n.A steady, fixed look. Gaze usually refers to prolonged and studied looking, often indicative of wonder, fascination, awe, or admiration. cf. gape, glare, peer, ogle. [Middle English gazen, probably from Scandanavian, akin to Swedish dialectal gasa.] gazer n.

  11. Morphophonemics gaze (gāz) vi. gazed, gazing, gazes. To look intently or with fixed attention; to stare. n. A steady, fixed look. Gaze usually refers to prolonged and studied looking, often indicative of wonder, fascination, awe, or admiration. cf. gape, glare, peer, ogle. [Middle English gazen, probably from Scandanavian, akin to Swedish dialectal gasa.] gazer n.

  12. Semantics gaze (gāz) vi. gazed, gazing, gazes.To look intently or with fixed attention; to stare.n. A steady, fixed look. Gaze usually refers to prolonged and studied looking, often indicative of wonder, fascination, awe, or admiration. cf. gape, glare, peer, ogle. [Middle English gazen, probably from Scandanavian, akin to Swedish dialectal gasa.] gazer n.

  13. Socio-linguistics gaze (gāz) vi. gazed, gazing, gazes. To look intently or with fixed attention; to stare. n. A steady, fixed look. Gaze usually refers to prolonged and studied looking, often indicative of wonder, fascination, awe, or admiration. cf. gape, glare, peer, ogle. [Middle English gazen, probably from Scandanavian, akin to Swedish dialectal gasa.] gazer n.

  14. Lexical relations gaze (gāz) vi. gazed, gazing, gazes. To look intently or with fixed attention; to stare. n. A steady, fixed look. Gaze usually refers to prolonged and studied looking, often indicative of wonder, fascination, awe, or admiration. cf. gape, glare, peer, ogle. [Middle English gazen, probably from Scandanavian, akin to Swedish dialectal gasa.] gazer n.

  15. Historical linguistics gaze (gāz) vi. gazed, gazing, gazes. To look intently or with fixed attention; to stare. n. A steady, fixed look. Gaze usually refers to prolonged and studied looking, often indicative of wonder, fascination, awe, or admiration. cf. gape, glare, peer, ogle. [Middle English gazen, probably from Scandanavian, akin to Swedish dialectal gasa.] gazer n.

  16. Derivational morphology gaze (gāz) vi. gazed, gazing, gazes. To look intently or with fixed attention; to stare. n. A steady, fixed look. Gaze usually refers to prolonged and studied looking, often indicative of wonder, fascination, awe, or admiration. cf. gape, glare, peer, ogle. [Middle English gazen, probably from Scandanavian, akin to Swedish dialectal gasa.] gazern.

  17. A “simple” dictionary entry bridesmaid (brīdz´mād) n. A woman, usually young and unmarried, who attends the bride at a wedding. Compare maid of honor, matron of honor.

  18. Generic term bridesmaid (brīdz´mād) n. A woman, usually young and unmarried, who attends the bride at a wedding. Compare maid of honor, matron of honor.

  19. Prototype theory bridesmaid (brīdz´mād) n. A woman, usually young and unmarried, who attends the bride at a wedding. Compare maid of honor, matron of honor.

  20. Componential analysis bridesmaid (brīdz´mād) n. A woman, usually young and unmarried, who attends the bride at a wedding. Compare maid of honor, matron of honor.

  21. Anthropology bridesmaid (brīdz´mād) n. A woman, usually young and unmarried, who attends the bride at a wedding. Compare maid of honor, matron of honor.

  22. Semantic domain bridesmaid (brīdz´mād) n. A woman, usually young and unmarried, who attends the bride at a wedding. Compare maid of honor, matron of honor.

  23. Lexical set bridesmaid (brīdz´mād) n. A woman, usually young and unmarried, who attends the bride at a wedding. Compare maid of honor, matron of honor.

  24. Dictionaries and translation • A bilingual dictionary is an extremely useful tool in translation. • To be most useful, a dictionary must deal with more than semantics. • It must also deal with the cultural assumptions behind words. • When we use a word, we evoke an entire scenario in the mind of the listener.

  25. Matthew 25:1 (NKJV) “Then the kingdom of heaven shall be likened to ten virgins who took their lamps and went out to meet the bridegroom.” • Using the word ‘bridegroom’ evokes the wedding scenario. • Jesus was talking about a Jewish wedding. • We try to interpret what he said in terms of an American wedding.

  26. Matthew 25:1 (NKJV) “Then the kingdom of heaven shall be likened to ten virgins who took their lamps and went out to meet the bridegroom.” • Are these virgins ‘bridesmaids’? • Why would they be meeting the bridegroom instead of the bride? • Why are they holding lamps instead of flowers?

  27. Lexicography The study of dictionaries and their production.

  28. Lexicology The study of the mental dictionary.

  29. Lexeme A word and one of its meanings; a lexeme can be a phrase, such as an idiom, whose meaning is not the sum of its parts. A word with three meanings would represent three lexemes. Syn: lexical item

  30. Lemma A form chosen as the head of a dictionary entry. lemmatizev. to choose a form as the head of a dictionary entry. lemmatizationn. the choosing of a form as the head of a dictionary entry.

  31. Lexicon • The information stored in a speaker’s head concerning the lexemes of a language. • The inventory of lexemes of a language. • A published description of the lexemes of a language. syn. dictionary, vocabulary.

  32. Lexical structure • The mental lexicon is not just a random collection of words and phrases. • Words are related. • The structure is all-pervasive; everything is related. • The structure is highly complex. • The structure is multi-dimensional. • The structure is multi-layered/stratified.

  33. sky star The semantic domain ‘sky’ constellation sunshine sun heavenly bodies twinkle shine moon planet Jupiter man in the moon air blue nimbus howl wind cloud fluffy weather tornado storm rain rainbow lightning thunder umbrella

  34. run runner Partial structure of ‘run:runner’ verb Agentive Nominalizer (verb > noun) + -er noun 1. to move fast… 1. a person whois running 2. to spread (of avine) 2. a branch of a vine (the part of a vine thatspreads) 3. to smuggle 3. a person whosmuggles

  35. Steps in producing a dictionary: • Collect words • Fill out each entry • Define each word • Edit each entry for publication • Prepare the front and back matter

  36. Summary • We are going to study lexical theory. • We are going to study dictionaries. • We are going to learn how to use theory to help produce dictionaries. • Any questions?