English Monolingual Lexicography. Patrick Hanks formerly Chief Editor, Current English Dictionaries, Oxford University Press. Outline. The purpose of a monolingual dictionary History of English monolingual dictionaries Some milestones Examples of earlier English lexicography
formerly Chief Editor,
Current English Dictionaries,
Oxford University Press
S. Johnson (1755): Dictionary
N. Webster (1828): American Dictionary of the English Language
J. A. H. Murray et al. (1884-1928): OED
Isaac Funk (1894):Funk and Wagnall’sStandard Dictionary of the English Language.
Merriam Webster’s Second New International Dictionary(1933)
One dictionary builds on another.
All these dictionaries attempt to “put the modern meaning first”.
(Without corpus evidence, it is hard to decide what is the “modern meaning”.)
W. Geddie (1901):Chambers 20th-Century Dictionary
“éclair, a confection long in shape but short in duration”
H. W. Fowler (1911): Concise Oxford Dictionary
P. Hanks (1979):Collins English Dictionary
P. Hanks and J. Pearsall (1998):New Oxford Dictionary of English
A.S. Hornby (1947): Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary
P. Procter (1978): Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English
J. M. Sinclair, P. Hanks, et al. (1987): Cobuild
P. Procter (1993): Cambridge International Dictionary of English
M. Rundell (2001): Macmillan English Dictionary
ThomasThomas. 1587. Dictionarium Linguae Latinae et Anglicanae. [13th edition 1631]
Richard Percyvale (1591):Bibliotheca Hispanica. Containing a Grammar, with a Dictionarie in Spanish, English and Latine, gathered out of divers good Authors: very profitable for the studious of the Spanish toong.
John Minsheu:Ductor in Linguas (1617). [Spanish]
Randle Cotgrave (1611):A dictionarie of the French and English tongues.
John Florio:World of Words (1598) and New World of Words (1611) [Italian]
Robert Cawdrey (1604): A Table Alphabeticall … of hard usuall English wordes, borrowed from the Hebrew, Greeke, Latin, or French, etc. … gathered for the benefit and help of Ladies, Gentlewomen, or any other unskillful persons
alchimie,the art of turning other mettals into gold
alienate,to estrange, or with-drawe the mind, or to make a thing another mans
allegorie,similitude, a misticall speech, more then the bare letter
allegiance, obedience of a subiect
allusion,meaning and pointing to another matter then is spoken in words
allude,to speake one thing that hath resemblence and respect to another
altercation,debate, wrangling, or contention
ambage,long circumstance of words
1.the more sublime and occult part of chymystry, which proposes, for its object, the transmutation of metals, and other important operations.
There is nothing more dangerous than this licentious and deluding art, which changeth the meaning of words, as alchymy doth, or would do, the substance of metals, maketh of anything what it listeth, and bringeth, in the end, all truth to nothing. Hooker.
O he sits high in all the people’s hearts;
And that which would appear offence in us,
His countenance, like richest alchymy,
Will change to virtue, and to worthiness. Shakesp. J. Caesar.
Princes do but play us; compared to this,
All honours mimick, all wealth alchymy. Donne.
2. A kind of mixed metal used for spoons, and kitchen utensils.
The golden colour may be some mixture of orpiment, such as they use to brass in the yellow alchymy.
White alchymy is made of pan-brass one pound, and arsenicum three ounces; or alchymy is made of copper and auripigmentum. Bacon’s Physical Remains
They bid cry,
With trumpets regal found, the great result:
Tow’rds the four winds, four speedy cherubim
Put to their mouth the sounding alchymy,
By herald’s voice explained. Milton’s Paradise Lost, book 2
An Arabick term used by chymists for a high rectified dephlegmated spirit of wine, or for anything reduced into an impalpable powder. Quincy.
If the same salt shall be reduced into alcohol, as the chymists speak, or an impalpable powder, the particles and intercepted spaces will be extremely lessened. Boyle.
Sal volatile oleosum will coagulate the serum on account of the alcahol, or rectified spirit, which it contains. Arbuthnot.
To clear from phlegm, or aqueous insipid matter.
PHLEGM, … 2. water.
A linen cloth, dipped in common spirit of wine, is not burnt by the flame, because the phlegm of the liquor defends the cloth. Boyle.
[But Greek phlegma means ‘fire’! The meaning change (to ‘liquid secretion’, via ‘inflammation of the body’) took place in Late Latin]
alcohol…1. … a colorless, limpid, volatile, flammable, water-miscible liquid, C2H5OH, having an etherlike odor and pungent, burning taste, the intoxicating principle of fermented liquors, produced by yeast fermentation of certain carbohydrates, as grains, molasses, starch, or sugar, or obtained synthetically by hydration of ethylene or as a by-product of certain syntheses: used chiefly as a solvent in the extraction of specific substances, in beverages, medicines, organic synthesis, lotions, tonics, colognes, rubbing compounds, as an automobile radiator antifreeze, and as a rocket fuel. 2. whiskey, gin, vodka, or any other intoxicating liquor containing this liquid. 3.Chem. Any of a class of compounds …having the general formula ROH, where R represents an alkyl group and –OH a hydroxyl group…
alcohol… a colourless volatile flammable liquid which is the intoxicating constituent of wine, beer, spirits, and other drinks, and is also used as an industrial solvent and as fuel.
alcohol noun [U] 1 drinks such as beer, wine, etc., that can make people drunk: He never drinks alcohol. alcohol abuse2 the colourless liquid that is found in drinks such as beer, wine, etc., and is used in medicines, cleaning products, etc.: Wine usually contains about 10% alcohol. levels of alcohol in the blood He pleaded guilty to driving with excess alcohol. Low-alcohol beer Choose an alcohol-free skin toner if you have dry skin.
alcohol (as modifier)BNC freq. MI score
alchemy … 1.a form of chemistry and speculative philosophy practiced in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance and concerned principally with discovering methods for transmuting baser metals into gold and with finding a universal solvent and an elixir of life. 2. any magical powder or process of transmuting a common substance, usually of little value, into a substance of great value.
alchemy … the medieval forerunner of chemistry, based on the supposed transformation of matter. It was concerned particularly with attempts to convert base metals into gold or find a universal elixir.
1 a form of chemistry studied in the Middle Ages which involved trying to discover how to change ordinary metals into gold. 2(literary) a mysterious power or magic that can change things.
complain v.i.1. express dissatisfaction or annoyance about a state of affairs or an event. 2. (complain of) state that one is suffering from (a pain): he began to complain of headaches.
complaintn.1. A statement that a situation is unsatis-factory or unacceptable. 2. An illness or medical condition: a skin complaint.
Page design: breaking the monotony of the page.
Boxed features – for usage notes, historical asides, and other subsidiary information. Example:
camera1. a small room. 2. the treasury of the papal curia. 3. a device for taking photographs.
camera1. a device for taking photographs. 2.in camera: in a small room (used of a judge hearing evidence in private).
Camera … [from Latin camera‘small room’. The modern sense developed in the 19th century via the 18th century term camera obscura, denoting a darkened upper room with a (rotating) angled mirror at the apex of the roof, which projected an image of the surrounding landscape onto a flat surface in the room]
madrigal – from Italian madrigale, medieval Latin carmen matricale ‘simple song’ (i.e. one without instrumental accompaniment), from Latin matricalis ‘maternal, simple, primitive’, from matrix ‘womb’.
magazine – via Italian from Arabic makzin ‘storehouse’ (for armaments and goods, hence, figuratively, for facts): the same word as French magasin ‘shop, department store’.
size – from assizes ‘sitting of a law court’. A ‘size loaf’ was a loaf of a dimension determined by a law court.