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Livestock commodity value chains in three Amhara zones Kahsay Berhe and Yohannes Mehari LIVES – Commodity Value Chain Development Inception Workshop EIAR HQ, Addis Ababa January 21-24, 2013
Introduction • Outline • Intervention zones and districts • Commodities and PAs • Constraints in value chains • Cross cutting issues • Potential interventions
Dairy related constraints • Marketing • Poor dairy cooperatives/union/private plants • Jantekel dairy union • Poor/inexistent primary cooperatives • Closure of private dairy processing plant • Lack of collection centres • Lack of milk processing during excess production • Culture/religion_mainly NG, WG • Processing plant collected milk on credit but no payment to farmers (SW)
Dairy continued… • Input supply • Poor AI service (lack of semen & liquid nitrogen, discouraged farmer AI technicians) • Lack of feed suppliers (dairy ration, roughage) • Lack of value chain approach • Appropriate breeds • Lack of facilities to reach dairy farmers • Production • Dairy = liquid milk ??? • Lack of improved breed • Poor productivity of cows (feed, health, management, etc) • Excess milk during wet season, no processing • Long calving interval • Short lactation
Beef production • Marketing • Unpredictability of the Sudan market • Defaulting of buyers • Meat processing plant not operational • Lack of proper market linkages and marketing groups • Lack of market information • Input supply • Lack proper ration suppliers, extended fattening • Lack of appropriate breed (Lowlands) • Lack of private clinics (treatment, vaccination) • Production • Lack of knowledge on appropriate fattening system • AI = dairy???
Poultry production • Marketing • Traditional marketing system, no collective marketing • Low egg price • Input • Lack of improved breeds • Lack of input shops (feed, vaccine) • Lack proper ration suppliers • Lack of value chain approach • Production • Traditional management (housing, feeding, health care) • Few improved chicks distributed • Lack of value chain perspective by extensionists • Disease prevalence • High chick mortality
Small ruminants • Marketing • Traditional marketing system • Access road problems during rainy seasons • Input supply • Lack of improved breed/better local breeds • Low input fattening • Production • Traditional fattening (not tethered, less supplementation) • Lack of protein rich feed resources in cereal based systems • Limited forage species for frosty areas • Poor technical support (out of 20 sheep only one survived)
Apiculture development • Marketing • Less honey produced and no market problem • Poor trust of consumers in pure honey (adulteration)– farmers sell comb honey • Production • Low productivity • Expansion of irrigation • Use of agrochemicals, expansion of chat production • Weak technical backstopping • No beehives in area closures • Bees absconding (sub standard hives, small sized wax sheet, wax moth, etc) • Honey from frame hive harvested without centrifuge (while centrifuges are stored in PA stores).
Apiculture continued…. • Input supply • Fake beeswax • Lack of input shops • Substandard (frame hives, small wax sheet, etc)
Cross cutting issues • Knowledge management • Training at FTCs not practically supported • Insufficient equipment and reading materials for training in FTCs • Manpower • High staff turnover • Weak regulatory activities • Gender • No/few women focused activities • Environment • Municipalities need to be aware of environmental problems due to livestock (avoid/minimise smell, zoonotic diseases, river pollution) • Land degradation because of overgrazing • Credit • Lack of credit
Proposed interventions • Dairy • Use of context specific synchronisation (milk, butter) • Improve feed resources (inclusion of legumes, intercropping, backyards, etc) • Organise platforms • Value chain perspective for all interventions needed • Promotion and support of private AI system, paravets • Collection centres at convenient sites • Support storing of feeds necessary for dairy in sufficient quantities • Encouragement the proliferation of private input suppliers • Inclusion of women in trainings • Encourage area closures_zero grazing
Interventions continued… • Beef • Demonstration of short fattening_FTC_Volunteer farmers • Establishment of marketing groups • Introduce mechanical choppers (less labour and less burden on women) • Promotion of zero grazing • Promote private Vet and AI services (beef breed) • Support creation of paravets
Interventions continued… • Poultry • Encourage community based vaccination systems • Encourage establishment of poultry feed suppliers • Establishing group/individual pullet/fertile egg production systems • Introducing small scale incubators • Characterisation of Dembia poultry breed??? • Encourage women in poultry production
Interventions continued… • Apiculture • Encourage existing honey shops to be input suppliers • Introduce beehives in area closures • Establish a platform between irrigated farm operators and beehive owners • Delineation of suitable areas for apiculture and irrigation development • Encourage farmer to farmer knowledge exchange • Appropriate and standard frame beehives • Use of genuine wax • Encourage farmers to supplement bees during feed shortage times
Interventions continued… • Small ruminants • Encourage community based insurance schemes with fattening groups • Community animal health workers/paravets • Introduce local but better breeds (Washera, Bonga, Horo, etc). • Encourage intercropping of and legumes and cereals (oats_SW) • Introduce forages suitable to the agroecology • Creation of breeder and fatteners groups • Encourage establishment of feed supply shops
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