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CE 350 Introduction to Transportation Planning

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  1. CE 350Introduction to Transportation Planning TPH Chapter 3 Commodity Flows and Freight Transportation

  2. Have an Understanding To see how global commodity flow impacts transportation planning at the MPO level.

  3. Lecture Points • Statistics are now available for commodity movements • Visualize commodity flows/freight transportation from Global National & State MPOs • How data sources are utilized by DOTs and MPOs

  4. You know this! Changes Since 1992 • ISTEA created the Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS) • The Interstate Commerce Commission was eliminated (had been in place for 100 yrs.) • Functions transferred to motor carrier financial data collection program of BTS

  5. Freight Within the Urban System • “Just-in-time” delivery • Growing air freight movements • Supply chains that extend around the globe • Cannot just count trucks in the traffic flow • We need to understand freight movement • About 1/2 of urban transportation costs are related to freight We must under-stand this!

  6. Current Status of Statistical Programs

  7. Census Bureau Surveys • Commodity Flow Survey (CFS) • 1993 and 1997 • Vehicle Inventory and Use Survey (VIUS) • 1997 • Truck trip table input for regional modeling • BTS is developing a Truck Trip Estimation Procedure (TTEP)(uses data from the 1997 survey)

  8. 1993 CFS Conducted by BTS • Provides information on • value • weight • mode • distance shipped • Shipped by • Manufacturing • mining • Wholesale trade • retail and services

  9. Two Big Ones • Data source advantage of ‘93 CFS • Covers local freight & intercity shipments • Identifies parcel post and courier as separate mode of transportation • Includes freight movement between coastal ports • First time freight movement by intermodal combination of carriers was estimated • New data was collected • Container shipments • Hazardous materials • Which commodities were exports ??????

  10. Management Systems AndFreight Advisory Councils • ISTEA mandated 6 management systems • Now are voluntary • Intermodal Management Systems (IMS) • Freight Advisory Councils were formed

  11. Commodity Flows & Freight Transportation Global National and State MPOs

  12. Think BANANAS !!

  13. Banana Facts • Bananas are Americas # 1 fruit • The average American consumes 28 pounds annually • Over 96% of our households buy then at least once a month • They are not grown commercially in the continental US but in Latin and South America • Bananas are harvested every day of the year and are available to us year around

  14. Shipping Bananas • The fruit is packed in 40-pound corrugated boxes • They are loaded into special refrigerated truckload-sized containers and driven to a sea port • Bananas are loaded on ships within 24 to 48 hours after being cut form the plant • They are shipped at a carefully maintained temperature of 58º • Before shipping to retail outlets, they are ripened in temperature and humidity controlled rooms.

  15. The United StatesandGlobal Freight Transportation

  16. Factors Affecting International Freight Flows • National and regional economies are dynamic • Business production and distribution has changed • Regional and global trade agreements • Transportation infrastructure allows more choice in siting new facilities

  17. Waterborne Freight • Between 1970 and 1995 • International waterborne freight nearly doubled • Domestic waterborne freight + 15% • Imports and exports increased through coastal ports, but • Declined for Great Lakes ports

  18. Air Freight • Imports and exports shipped by air has grown • 1970 = 11% of all international trade value • 1994 = 25% • Air is still a small potion of the weight shipped

  19. Surface Freight N • Canada and Mexico are largest trading partners • Detroit, Buffalo and Port Huron are gateway ports with Canada • Laredo is dominant gateway port with Mexico • Our East-West highway and rail orientation links Pacific coast with Atlantic and Gulf coast S W E

  20. Will Policy Change Freight Patterns? • 1993 North American Free Trade Agreement • With Canada and Mexico • 1995 World Trade Organization (WTO)Here are two that have!!

  21. National and State Freight Transportation: State to State U.S. Commodity Flows

  22. Commodity Movement in the US • Measured by the 1993 CFS • Major categories of freight shipment • Raw materials • Farm and food products • Manufactured, industrial and consumer products • Household and business moving • Municipal solid waste and other waste materials

  23. Intrastate and Interstate Freight Movement

  24. Truck Shipments Nationally

  25. Iowa Truck Shipments – 1993Millions $

  26. Iowa Truck Shipments – 1993Millions - Ton Miles

  27. Shipments by Mode

  28. Freight Transportation at the Metropolitan Level

  29. Sources of Freight Data • FHWA survey of MPOs • NCHRP 8-30 surveyed DOTs and MPOs • Conclusion • Most state and MPO planners have little experience in freight forecasting • Product developed • “A Freight Data Handbook for States and MPOs”

  30. TMIP Freight Track Projects • Respond to requirements of ISTEA • Program links transportation to • air quality • energy • economic growth • land use • overall quality of life

  31. Truck Trip Estimation Procedure (TTEP) • It is a technique to extract data from the census’ Vehicle Inventory and Use Survey • Allows calculation of averages for planning purposes • TEA 21 provided funds to develop software usable by MPOs • Provides for a common output from each region of the country

  32. Data Bases & Studies for MPO’s

  33. Census and BTS Data BasesPlus Other Data Sources • BTS’ Directory of Transportation Data Sources, 1996 • U.S. DOTs and BTS’ National Transportation Library • Census and BTS’ Commodity Flow Survey: 1993 • FRA’s and BTS’ Tail Waybill Data: 1988 - 1992 • BTS’ and ORNL’s National Transportation Atlas Databases (NTAD), 1997 • Census, County Business Patterns • Census’ and BTS’s Vehicle Inventory and Use Survey

  34. FHWA Motor Carrier Management Information System • BTS’ State Freight Profiles • Transportation facilities • Commodity movements • Exports to imports • Rail shipments • Waterborne commerce • Transportation establishments • Truck registration and vehicle miles traveled • Motor carrier statistics • Fatal truck crashes • Rail accidents • Hazardous materials incidents

  35. Applications of CFS inState and MPO Planning

  36. 4 Projects That Use CFS Data in State and MPO Planning • Biddle, Saurusaitis, Matherly and Perincherry, 1997 • Develop a model that is both spatially and temporally transferable that will translate nationally available yearly commodity flows into daily truck trips • Black, 1997 and 1998 • Model estimates the production and attraction of 19 commodity groups and two types of mail • Looks primarily at the highway and rail sectors

  37. Earlbam, 1998 • Provides overview of commodity flow in New York State • Combines data from • 1993 Commodity Flow Survey • 1993 U.S. Waterway Data • Trans-border Surface Freight Transportation Data • Kirshnan and Hancock, 1998 • Methodology for calculating truck flows on highways • Combines • 1993 Commodity Flow Survey • Highway Performance Monitoring System

  38. Lecture Points • Statistics are now available for commodity movements • Visualize commodity flows/freight transportation from Global National & State MPOs • How data sources are utilized by DOTs and MPOs

  39. CE 350Introduction to Transportation Planning TPH Chapter 3 Commodity Flows and Freight Transportation