DNA Structure. By the early 1900’s it was known that the chromosomes carry the genetic (hereditary) information Chromosomes consist of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid). I. Chemical Structure of DNA. Nucleotide: 1. Thousands of repeating units that make up the DNA (DNA is a polymer).
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1. Thousands of repeating units that make up the DNA (DNA is a polymer)
adenine, thymine, guanine, cytosine
(There are four different types of nucleotides, depending on which of the four bases is present- A, T, C, or G)
DNA consists of two chains of nucleotides in a ladder-like structure which is twisted
Distance between the two “backbones” of DNA
is constant along the length of the molecule
B. The bases make up the rungs of the ladder
C. The bases that make up the rungs of the ladder are attracted by a weak chemical bonds called hydrogen bonds
Adenine (A) pairs with Thymine (T)
Guanine (G) pairs with Cytosine(C)
1. How replication of DNA during mitosis produces exact copies for the daughter cells
2. How DNA acts as a code, specifying how proteins are made by the cell
2 along the weak hydrogen bonds between the base pairs. Free nucleotides that are present in the nucleus attach themselves by hydrogen bonds to the exposed bases
3. Two identical strands form from each strand of DNA along the weak hydrogen bonds between the base pairs
what is the order of bases on the complementary strand?
TCCAATGACGTG along the weak hydrogen bonds between the base pairs
Nucleus → Chromosome → Gene → DNA