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Chapters 6&7 ATTITUDE FORMATION AND CHANGE. Definition. Attitude : a relatively global and enduring evaluation of an object, issue, person, or action. INFLUENCES. What influences consumers’ attitudes toward specific products/brands?. Elaboration Likelihood Model.

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definition
Definition

Attitude:a relatively global and enduring evaluation of an object, issue, person, or action

influences
INFLUENCES
  • What influences consumers’ attitudes toward specific products/brands?
elaboration likelihood model
Elaboration Likelihood Model

Focus of model: Determining whether and under what conditions

an individual will elaborate on (process) the key

components of a persuasive message

Main proposition: There is more than one way to skin a cat (i.e.,

there are two routes to persuasion)

(1) central route: person focuses on key arguments in the persuasive communication and forms their attitude based on that (central) information

(2) peripheral route: person focuses on something other than the key arguments in the persuasive communication and forms their attitude based on that (peripheral) information

the elaboration likelihood model of persuasion
The Elaboration Likelihood Model of Persuasion

Exposure to

Persuasive

Communication

Motivated to

Elaborate?

no

Peripheral Route

Processing

yes

no

Able to Elaborate?

yes

Central Route

Processing

the elm detecting central vs peripheral processing
The ELM: Detecting Central vs. Peripheral Processing
  • Cognitive Response Approach
  • Method for examining consumers’ cognitive processing of
  • ad messages
  • Central Route Processing indicated by:
  • (a) counterarguments (product)
  • (b) support arguments (product)
  • (c) source derogations
  • Peripheral Route Processing indicated by:
  • (a) curiosity statements
  • (b) ad execution thoughts
questions
QUESTIONS

Should ads always encourage central route processing?

What ad design factors are most effective assuming central versus peripheral processing?

Can marketers predict how an ad will be processed?

the effects of motivation on attitude formation
The Effects of Motivation on Attitude Formation
  • Central-route to persuasion
  • Peripheral-route to persuasion

Cognitive

Affective

Cognitive

Affective

high effort cognitively based theories of attitude

TORA – Theory of Reasoned Action

Expectancy-Value Model: Attitude  Behavior

High Effort-Cognitively Based Theories of Attitude
  • Cognitive Response Model
attitude toward eating cheeks

More Predictive of

Behavioral Intentions

Attitude Toward Eating Cheeks

Attitude Specificity

attitude toward eating cheeks16

Not too

  • full

Belief

Strength

(bi)

2.

Taste slimy

3.

Get food

poisoning

Attitude Toward Eating Cheeks

Salient

Beliefs

Evaluation (ei)

Aact (biei)

+2

+1

+2

+3

-2

-6

+1

-3

-3

-7

subjective norms

Normative

Beliefs

Strength

Motivation to Comply (MCj)

(NBj)

SN (NBxMC)

1. Boss

2. Client

3. Colleague

(jerk)

Subjective Norms

+3

+3

+9

+3

+2

+6

+2

-3

-6

+9

the bottom line
The Bottom Line

BI = Aact + SN

=

=

Decision:

(-7) + (+9)

+2

Buy!

tora model
TORA Model
  • Assumptions?
  • Insight into attitude change
the effects of motivation on attitude formation20
The Effects of Motivation on Attitude Formation
  • Central-route to persuasion
  • Peripheral-route to persuasion

Cognitive

Affective

Cognitive

Affective

cognitive bases for low motivation attitudes

Operant Conditioning

Behavior

Cognitive Bases for Low- Motivation Attitudes
  • Simple inferences
    • Categorization
    • Brand name
  • Heuristics
    • Price/quality
affective bases of low motivation attitudes
Affective Bases of Low- Motivation Attitudes
  • Mood
  • Classical Conditioning
  • The Mere Exposure Effect
  • Attitude toward the ad
prior research
Prior Research

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Exposed

To Ad

Not Exposed

To Ad

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Positive

Article

Test: Attitude toward Ad:

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+++

experiment
Experiment

Task: Read Article or

Do Nothing

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Test: Attitude toward:

Emotionally

Negative or

Positive

Article

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Exp. Ad

Other Ads

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experiment26
Experiment
  • Subjects were exposed to the same ad three times

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  • One group always read an emotionally negative article, and one group a positive article

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Emotionally

Negative or

Positive

Article

  • What accounts for changes in attitude toward the ad?
    • Mood
    • Classical Conditioning
    • Mere Exposure

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slide27

Positive

Article

Negative

Article

Mood
  • Increases accessibility of mood congruent thoughts
  • Biasing effect on attitudes

Exp. Ad

Other Ads

Exp. Ad

Other Ads

classical conditioning

Salivate

Meat

?

Bell

Meat

+

Bell

Salivate

Salivate

Bell

Classical Conditioning
classical conditioning29

Positive

Article

Negative

Article

Classical Conditioning
  • Unconditioned Stimulus
  • Unconditioned Response
  • Conditioned Stimulus
  • Conditioned Response

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Emotionally

Negative or

Positive

Article

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the mere exposure effect

Positive

Article

Negative

Article

The Mere Exposure Effect
  • Exposure Facilitates subsequent processing
  • Without memory for the stimulus, this ease in processing is misattributed as liking.
results
Results

Positive

Article

Negative

Article

Mood

Classical

Conditioning

Mere

Exposure

attitude toward the ad a ad
Attitude Toward the Ad (Aad)
  • Transfer of affect from ad to product
  • Dual Mediation Hypothesis
the dual mediation hypothesis
The Dual Mediation Hypothesis

Ad Credibility - Brand Beliefs

Aad

Ab

explicit vs implicit attitudes
Explicit vs. Implicit Attitudes
  • Please rate how warm or cold you feel toward the following groups (0 = coldest feelings, 5 = neutral, 10 = warmest feelings)
    • Old People ___
    • Young People ___

https://implicit.harvard.edu/implicit/

ad