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Bell Ringer – 1/14

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  1. Bell Ringer – 1/14 • M.socrative.com – Room #38178 • QUESTIONS: • (1) What created emotion in music? • (2) How did the orchestra change?

  2. Romantic Music 2 Program Music, Symphonies, Operas

  3. Symphonies! • Already talked about Beethoven’s Symphony No. 9 • Symphonies were now being written in the manner of Beethoven’s 9, and even further challenged the orchestra in new ways.

  4. Symphonies • Schubert also wrote symphonies • Most famous: Symphony No. 8 “The Unfinished Symphony” • Started in 1822, but only has 2 complete movements • Most symphonies have 4 movements (fast, slow, dance, fast) • The third movement exists in piano score, with only two pages orchestrated • Why do you think it wasn’t finished?

  5. Schubert’sUnfinished symphony • First Movement • In sonata form, but almost a minuet and trio as it is in triple meter • Opening clarinet melody is VERY famous

  6. Hector Berlioz • The other symphony we’ll explore is Berlioz’s Symphony Fantastique • It is a symphony, but it is also program music

  7. Program Music • Romantic composers structured their longer works around a non-musical story, a picture, or some other idea • Also known as “descriptive” music • Not entirely new, but really takes off in the Romantic period (most popular during this period) • The Romantic period is known as “the age of program music”

  8. Program Music - Berlioz • Hector Berlioz (1803-1869), French • SymphonieFantastique (1830) • Involves a single motive that ties all five movements together • The story involves a hero who has poisoned himself because of unrequited love. However, the drug only sends him into semi-consciousness, in which he has hallucinations.

  9. SymphonieFantastique • Movement 1: “Reveries” and “Passions” • Typical “love and longing” number • Movement 2: “A Ball” • Movement 3: “In the Country” • Movement 4: “March to the Scaffold” • What is a scaffold? • Movement 5: “Dream of a Witches’ Sabbath” • 4:00

  10. SymphonieFantastique • Movement 4: March to the Scaffold • The hero dreams he has killed his beloved and is about to be executed • The motif returns at the end of the movement and is abruptly shattered by the fall of the axe • 4:00 • The fast pizzicato notes from the strings represent his head rolling down the stairs • The chords that follow represent the cheers from the crowd!

  11. Night on bald mountain • By Modest Mussorgsky • 1839-1881, Russian • “Bald Mountain” is the home of the Devil • Its creatures are coming to worship it • It was arranged and first performed after his death in 1881 by his friend Rimsky-Korsakov • It premiered in 1886 • Night on Bald Mountain - Fantasia

  12. Political Statements • Composers also wrote with the political circumstances of the century in mind • Folk tunes appear in these works as themes, as do local rhythms and harmonies • The exaltation of national identity was consistent with Romantic requirements • Occurs in the music of 19th century Russia, Spain, Britain, Scandinavia, Germany, and Austria

  13. Tchaikovsky • Peter Ilyich Tchaikovsky (1840-1893) • Russian (but of Western music traditions) • Went to law school, and worked for the government, but quit to play music • Some of his pieces rate amongst the most popular concert and theatrical music in the repertoire

  14. 1812 Overture • Commemorates Russia’s defense of Moscow against Napoleon • The Russian and French anthems are going to head to head. • In the finale, cannons fire, ringing chimes, and brass fanfares • The Russian music triumphs! • Includes a full choir • 1812 Overture Finale • The Boston Pops plays it on the 4th of July every year • Ending (2:30)

  15. Romeo and Juliet • Tchaikovsky – program music without the political overtones • Based on Shakespeare’s Romeo and Juliet • Romeo & Juliet (9:00)

  16. Tchaikovsky’s ballets • Tchaikovsky wrote some of the most famous ballets of all time • The Nutcracker • Swan Lake • We will study these in the dance section of our unit

  17. Pieces to Know • Liszt’s Hungarian Rhapsody No. 2 • Chopin’s Nocturne Op. 9, No. 2 New • Tchaikovsky’s Romeo & Juliet • Tchaikovsky’s 1812 Overture • Mussorgsky’s Night on Bald Mountain • Berlioz’s SymphonieFantastique March to the Scaffold • Schubert’s “Unfinished Symphony”

  18. Piece Naming Practice • 1. Franz Liszt Hungarian Rhapsody No. 2 (7:07) • 2. First Movement“Unfinished” (beginning) • 3. Romeo & Juliet (9:00) • 4. Chopin Nocturne Op.9 No.2 (Beginning) • 5. Night on Bald Mountain - Fantasia(1:25) • 6. 1812 Overture Finale(3:00) • 7. Movement 4: March to the Scaffold(1:30)