Bell Ringer Question What are the major cities of the United States? What makes them so large and important?
The Renaissance A rebirth of learning, arts, and desire to explore the human experience.
What was the Renaissance? • Means rebirth in French • Time of rebirth after disorder and disunity of the Middle Ages • Refers to rebirth of art, learning, and thinking • Thinkers focused more on the richness and variety of human experience • More focus on the here and now and individual achievements
How was the Renaissance possible? There are several reasons!! 1.) Increased Trade • The Renaissance was possible due to increased trade because of safer routes (thanks Crusaders!) • The trade also allowed classical texts to return to Europe. These texts were preserved in the Byzantine Empire and by many monasteries. They were traded for other goods.
How was the Renaissance possible? 2.) Disunity from the Middle Ages • After the Middle Ages, feudal society changed. Villages began to expand and modernize. • In Italy, city states arose and they became trading centers and places of great learning as well
How was the Renaissance possible? 3.) The Black Death • The widespread death caused people to think of the world differently • People focused more on their lives on Earth because they realized how short it could be • There was also a new wave of piety because they believed God had spared them- more religious art
How was the Renaissance possible? 4.) Cultural Conditions in Florence • Began in Florence because of the influence of de‘ Medici family especially Lorenzo de’ Medici whom they called Lorenzo the Magnificent
Who were the Medici family and how did the influence the Renaissance? • Owned a banking business in Florence. They loaned money to merchants, funded public works, and helped politicians. • They also owned many mines and wool manufacturing mills as well.
Who were the Medici family and how did the influence the Renaissance? • They were able to make many political connections and control much of Florence because of their connections and philanthropy. • They became patrons (financial supporters) of the arts. They hired many artists and commissioned many works of art and architecture.
What were the different changes during the Renaissance? • Humanism- change in thought • Art- change in subject and technique • Science- modernization of techniques • Writing- rise of self help and commentary • Religion- more focus on power
What was Humanism? • It was a method of learning which encompassed studying and analyzing like Plato • In the Middle Ages, learning sought to resolve contradictions between authors • During the Renaissance, learning was to assimilate ancient with modern • They hoped to use ancient knowledge to increase their knowledge of the present • Believed that education should stimulate creativity
How did Art change? • In the Middle Ages, most art was dark and religious based. • At this time, artists studied Roman and Greek art and architecture. They also used rules of perspective to make their work look 3D. • Artists studied the human body by studying models and some even performed illegal autopsies
Medieval Art V.S. Renaissance Art Medieval Art Renaissance Art
How did Art change? • Most Renaissance art portrayed religious figures set in Roman or Greek backgrounds • Artists also used more oils in their painting and worked with plaster in a technique called fresco • They also portrayed well known people of the day to highlight their achievements- usually they were the artist’s patrons • Some art sought to reconcile philosophy with religion as well
Leonardo da Vinci • Was a true Renaissance man: painter, sculptor, architect, engineer, and scientist • Vatican was his patron and he performed illegal dissections in the Vatican • Was a rival of Michelangelo
Vitruvian Man Perfect sketch showing how Leonardo da Vinci was skilled in anatomy and mathematics
The Virgin of the Rocks Shows Mary with baby Jesus ,John the Baptist, and an angel. John the Baptist is blessing baby Jesus. There is also sign language depicted in the painting spelling out da Vinci’s name. The halos and crosses were later added after his time.
Mona Lisa This was his most famous and prized painting. He took it everywhere with him and constantly added to it.
Michelangelo • Lived in the house of Lorenzo de’ Medici as a teen and studied Neo-Platonism and religion • Patrons were the Medici and the Vatican Church • Was primarily a sculptor but also painted and was an architect • Applied sculptural techniques in his frescoes
Raphael • Painted much of the Papal apartments- Raphael Rooms or Stanze • Worked in the Vatican at the same time as Michelangelo and greatly admired him • Painter and architect
Sandro Botticelli • Florentine artist • Trained as a goldsmith by his brother