Bell Ringer What does the cartoonist suggests Hitler is doing? Who are the other people in this picture and what does the cartoonist think of them?
World War II Chapter 24
Paths to War • Hitler believed that Germans belonged to the Aryan race which was superior to all other races and nationalities • He believed that Germany should once again be an empire and he needed more land to support the larger population • Hitler indicated in the 1920s that they would expand East into the S.U. • They would then use the Slavic's as slave labor to build the Third Reich • Hitler thought this would rule for 1,000 years
Paths to War • After WWI, when Hitler was chancellor, he said he wished to revise the unfair provisions of the treaty by peaceful means • He said Germany deserved its rightful place among the European states • However, on March 9, 1935 Hitler announced the new air force, a week later a military draft • Britain, France and Italy condemned the behavior but were too busy dealing with the Great Depression to do anything about it
Paths to War • Hitler felt that the Western states would not use force to enforce the Treaty of Versailles • He sent German troops into the Rhineland (a part of Germany that was demilitarized) • France could have met this with force, but wouldn’t with backing from Britain • Britain said the Germans should have right to militarize their own land • This began the policy of appeasement
Paths to War • Hitler gained new allies as he went along • Benito Mussolini gave Hitler his support after the British and French blocked his attempt to invade Ethiopia • This led to the Rome-Berlin Axis • Germany and Italy sent support to Gen. Francisco Franco in the Spanish Civil War • Later, Germany and Japan sign the Anti-Comintern Pact to agree to fight against the Communists
Paths to War • By 1937 Hitler had declared Germany as a “world power” • He started work on his goal of Anschluss (ANSH-luhs) which was unification with Austria • He forced the Austrian chancellor to put Austrian Nazis in power • Those Nazis allowed German troops to “help” maintain law and order • Next, he annexed Austria into Germany
Paths to War • Next Hitler turned to the Sudetenland, part of Czechoslovakia • At a conference in Munich, the British, French, and Italians gave in to nearly all of Hitler’s demands • The Czechs were abandoned by their allies • Hitler promised to make no new demands • Neville Chamberlain, British P.M., said this meant “peace for our time”
Paths to War • Hitler quickly made it clear that he had no intentions of staying put • When he began to threaten to Danzig (port in Poland) Britain said they would fight if he invaded Poland • At the same time, Britain and France realized that the SU would make a powerful ally and began negotiations with Joseph Stalin
Paths to War • Hitler was not afraid of the British or French, but he was afraid of an alliance with them and the SU • He created his own with the SU when he signed the Nazi-Soviet Nonaggression Pact • He promised to give the Soviets control of Eastern Poland and the Baltic states
Stalin Hitler • The non-aggression pact was surprising. Hitler and Stalin were seen as natural enemies. • When Hitler talked of taking over new land for Germany, many thought that he meant Russia. • Hitler also hated Communism, the form of government in Russia
September 1939: Germany invaded Poland • This officially starts World War II But, the pact allowed Germany to march into Poland without fear of an attack from Russia. On 3rd September 1939, Germany invaded Poland and started a War with Britain and France. German troops marching into Warsaw, the capital of Poland.
Paths to War • Japan had a goal of creating a new empire consisting of Japan, Manchuria and China they knew they needed resources • They had intended to get these from Soviet Siberia, but after they signed an alliance with German, Japan had to rethink their strategy • When Japan turned to the south, they met opposition from the Western powers, especially the US
Paths to War • The US said they would apply economic sanctions unless Japan withdrew from the area and returned to its borders • Japan weighed the options of losing the resources it was getting from the US to what it stood to lose if it didn’t move into China • After debate, Japan decided to launch a surprise attack on the US and European colonies in Southeast Asia
Assignments • P. 808 , Read “Hitler’s Vision” Answer the following questions: • Why would Hitler regard democracy as a “cancer”? • What does Hitler mean by “ruthless Germanization?” • P. 822 #1,2, 4-7
In groups of 2-3 people. You will need two pieces of paper. As a group you will need to complete a two wall maps of the land acquired my Germany& Italy and Japan. This needs to be done in color and drawn to scale. Be sure to include the legend. P. 811-812 Next, use the timeline on page 809 to indicate the order of events on your World War II maps, draw a timeline on your map. Then answer the following questions on your own paper: In what ways did Hitler ignore the Treaty of Versailles? What were some of the causes of WWII? At what stage do you think other countries should have attempted to stop Hitler by using force? Why do you think they did not? How was Hitler able to take over Western Europe so quickly? In your own words what was the policy of appeasement? Do you think this was a successful policy?
Bell Ringer • Why do you think America joins WWII?
The Course of world war II • Hitler used blitzkrieg or “lightening war” which consisted of 300 tanks, plus accompanying forces and supplies as well as air support, to attack Poland • Poland surrendered within 4 weeks • On Sept. 28, 1939 Germany and the SU divided Poland • After a winter of waiting (called the Phony War) Hitler resumed attacks with another blitzkrieg against Norway and Denmark on April 9, 1940 • One month later Germany launched attacks on the Netherlands, Belgium, and France
The Course of world war II • Germany’s main assault on France came through Luxembourg and the Ardennes Forest • Allied forces were taken by surprise when Germany went around the Maginot Line • Both Britain and France were pushed back to the port of Dunkirk • Only by the heroic efforts of the Royal Navy and private citizens with boats did the British manage to evacuate 338,000 Allied troops • On June 22 France signed an armistice giving Germany control of 3/5ths of France • The rest was controlled by a puppet government
The Course of world war II • The British (will now) turned to the US for help • FDR denounced the Axis powers actions, but the US was following the strategy of isolationism • They eventually loosened up some so as to supply the British with food, ships, planes and weapons • Hitler knew he could launch a successful amphibious invasion if he controlled the air over Britain • In Aug. 1940 Germany launched a major air attack on Britain (naval bases, harbors, communication centers, and war industries)
The Course of world war II • The British fought back by launching attacks on Berlin (the first time in the war that Germany goes on the defense) • Hitler ordered a shift in strategy from military targets to British cities • This allowed Britain to recover from the loss of military goods • Hitler hoped to break Britain’s spirit, instead he ended up postponing the invasion indefinitely • This was known as the Battle of Britain
View of a V-1 rocket in flight, ca. 1944. Aircraft spotter on the roof of a building in London. St. Paul's Cathedral is in the background. "Children of an eastern suburb of London, who have been made homeless by the random bombs of the Nazi night raiders, waiting outside the wreckage of what was their home."
The Course of world war II • Hitler had no desire to fight a two-front war, yet he believed the only reason Britain remained in the war is because they expected help from the SU • Hitler believed that the SU had a pitiful military • Hitler planned the attack for the spring of 1941, but had to delay his attack on the Soviet Union until later. This will prove to be a huge mistake for Hitler. • Hitler thought the war with the SU would be over before the winter • While successful early on, German forces were stopped by an early winter and Soviet resistance. • Germans had no idea what a Russian Winter was. • This is the first time the Germans were stopped and it marked an ominous ending to the year
The Course of world war II • On December 7, 1941 Japan attacked several naval bases in the Pacific including the Philippines, Malaya, and Pearl Harbor • Japan called their new “community” the Greater East Asia Co-prosperity Sphere • They assumed that their attack on America would make the Americans realize that Japan was the dominant country
USS SHAW exploding during the Japanese raid on Pearl Harbor, December 7, 1941
Assignment • Pearl Harbor Video
Would you go to war? Would you risk going to war based solely on what you saw in yesterdays footage?
The United States has now official entered into World War II.The U.S. declared war on Japan: December 8, 1941Germany declared war on the U.S.:December 11, 1941 Franklin Delano Roosevelt DID!
The Course of world war II • When the US entered the war, a new coalition was created called the Grand Alliance • This included Britain, US, and SU • They agreed to put aside political differences in order to deal with military operations • They agreed to fight until the Axis Powers (Germany, Italy and Japan) surrendered unconditionally
The Course of world war II • With Japan attacking in the Pacific, Hitler and his European allies continued fighting the war in Europe • In North Africa the Africa Corps, German forces led by Gen. Erwin Rommel, were closing in on Alexandria • In the SU the Germans had captured the entire Crimea • Hitler declared that the British Empire would collapse within two years thanks to the advancements his military was making
Gen. Erwin Rommel (a.k.a. Desert Fox) Libya, January or November 24, 1941
The Course of world war II • By the fall of 1942, however, the war had turned against the Germans • In May of 1943 American and British forces forced the Germans to surrender in North Africa • Back in Russia, Hitler’s generals wanted him to go after the oil fields • He decided to go after Stalingrad instead • One of the worst battles of the war occurred between Nov. 1942 and Feb. 1943 • Eventually the German Sixth Army (considered the best) was encircled and lost • German forces were now pushed back to where they had been a year ago • Even Hitler knew they would not defeat the SU
The Course of world war II • The turning point in the Pacific is going to come at the Battle of Midway Island • This put the US on the offensive allowing them to have two operations in place • Douglas MacArthur led troops through the Philippines, into New Guinea and on to the South Pacific Islands • The other campaign was to take a combination of Marines, Army and Navy and attack random Japanese-held islands while leaving others until they got to Japan (this was known as “island hopping”) • After a series of entanglements, the Japanese were losing ground
American troops of the 163rd Infantry Regiment hit the beach from Higgins boats during the invasion of Wadke Island, Dutch New Guinea. May 18, 1945 A Water Buffalo, loaded with Marines, churns through the sea bound for beaches of Tinian Island near Guam." July 1944 Iwo Jima, Feb. 23, 1945 165th Infantry assault wave attacking Butaritari, Yellow Beach Two, find it slow going in the coral bottom waters. Nov. 20, 1943
The March of Death. Along the March on which these prisoners were photographed, they have their hands tied behind their backs. The March of Death was about May 1942, from Bataan to Cabanatuan, the prison camp
The Course of world war II • By the beginning of 1943 things were looking bad for the Axis powers • Winston Churchill, the P.M. of Britain, declared that Italy was the “soft underbelly” of Europe • Allied troops took Sicily in September and turned to the mainland of Italy • Mussolini was removed from office and arrested by King Victor Emmanuel III • Italy offered surrender to the Allied forces • Germany busts Mussolini out of jail and puts him in charge of the government in Northern Italy • It would not be until June 4, 1944 after months of long battles, that Rome falls to the Allies
The Course of world war II • The Allies had been planning an invasion of France from Britain, across the English Channel • They had set a diversion in Pas-de-Calais • On June 6, 1944 (D-Day), led by Dwight D. Eisenhower, allied forced stormed the beaches in Normandy • This was the greatest naval invasion in history • Within 3 months, the Allies landed more than 2M people and ½ a million vehicles • By August, they took Paris back and by March of 1945, they were headed into Germany • By April, they were linked across Germany into Soviet territory
Scenes from the D-Day Invasion, June 6, 1944
The Course of world war II • As British and US forces closed in from the West, the Soviets closed in from the East • Allied forces entered Berlin in April 1945 • Hitler had retreated to a bunker 55 feet under Berlin • He said “Above all I charge the leaders of the nation and those under them to scrupulous observance of the laws of race and merciless opposition to the universal poisoner of all peoples, international Jewry.”
THE COURSE OF WORLD WAR II • On April 30, 1945 Hitler committed suicide • Mussolini had been killed two days prior • On May 7th German commanders surrendered • May 8th is known as V-E Day Mussolini was hanged in a town square upon his death. He was continually beaten with sticks and other objects. The Italians dislike for him was quite evident. His mistress and many of his guards were hanged with him.
The Course of world war II • With the war over in Europe, the US could now turn their attention to Japan • Japan was using kamikaze pilots to blow up targets • Truman, President of the US after the death of FDR, had to decide whether or not to usethe newly created atomic bombs • On August 6 the US dropped the first atomic bomb on Hiroshima • On August 9 US dropped the second on Nagasaki • On August 14 Japan surrendered • The war was finally over • 17M people died in battle • 20M civilians died as well
A dense column of smoke rises more than 60,000 feet into the air over the Japanese port of Nagasaki, the result of an atomic bomb, the second ever used in warfare, dropped on the industrial center August 8, 1945, from a U.S. B-29 Superfortress. In the background, a Roman Catholic cathedral on a hill in Nagasaki. 1945 The patient's skin is burned in a pattern corresponding to the dark portions of a kimono worn at the time of the explosion. Atomic bomb survivor.1945.
Sailors return to NYC, 1945 American Soldiers after Japan surrenders, 1945
Assignment • Read Ch.26, Sec.3 “The Holocaust” • Answer the Reading Checks • #1,2,4-9 • Read a (P.823) “A German Solider at Stalingrad” • #1-3
Get with a partner and discuss these questions. Decide which of the three topics do you two have the most to talk about. Then as a set answer this question using things we spoke about in lecture and facts from the book. Using a piece of paper record the information in a Y-graph. • Do you think the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor had any impact on the outcome of World War II, and did this incident justify Americas entrance into World War II? • Do you think President Truman’s final decision to drop the atomic bomb was a necessary evil or just plain evil? • Was Hitler a good military leader or did he make mistakes when it came to his decisions with the war?
Was Hitler an evil genius or just evil? Ryan Me • Yes, he was able to take control of a country in just 4 years. • Yes, he was able to create 5.5 million jobs in just 5 years. • Yes, he brought Germany from a weak poor country to a World Power in 4 years. • No, he caused a 2 front war. • No, he could not get into art school. • Yes, he was able to create 5.5 million jobs in just 5 years. • Yes, he brought Germany from a weak poor country to a World Power in 4 years. • No, he went too far and caused an unnecessary war. • No, he invaded Russia. 2 3 Us • Yes, he was able to create 5.5 million jobs in just 5 years. • Yes, he brought Germany from a weak poor country to a World Power in 4 years. • No, he created a two-front war What we agreed on… 4