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Reconstruction: Triumphs and Tragedies. Base Problems. Treason? Status of the States Rights of ex-slaves Rights of Unionists Veteran’s Rights Law and Order Repairs Economic Wasteland. The Freedman's Bureau. Operates: March 1865-1872 Boss: General Oliver Howard

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base problems
Base Problems
  • Treason?
  • Status of the States
  • Rights of ex-slaves
  • Rights of Unionists
  • Veteran’s Rights
  • Law and Order
  • Repairs
  • Economic Wasteland
the freedman s bureau
The Freedman's Bureau
  • Operates: March 1865-1872
  • Boss: General Oliver Howard
  • Assists Freedmen in many different ways, many unprecedented
the freedman s bureau education
The Freedman’s Bureau -- Education
  • Biggest Success of the Agency
  • No Southern Public Education Pre-War
  • 3000 Schools, 150,000 students
  • Originally Northern White Women Teachers
    • Later staffed by Blacks
  • Literacy: Up to 30% by 1876, 70% by 1910
black universities
Black Universities
  • 1880—13 Black Universities
  • “Hampton Normal and Agricultural Institute” (1870—Land Grant University)
    • Trained Teachers
    • “Head, Heart, and Hands”--Mixed intellectual, moral, and craft instruction
    • Booker T. Washingtonwas a graduate
other freedman s bureau activities
Other Freedman's Bureau Activities
  • Food Distribution (15 million rations)
  • Reuniting Families
  • 100 Hospitals
  • Work Dispute Resolution and Contract Negotiations
land for the freedmen
Land for the Freedmen
  • Former Slaves wanted land (“Forty Acres and a Mule”)
  • Sherman's Field Order Number 15—January, 1865—Land for slaves on South Atlantic Coast
  • 1866—Southern Homestead Act: Blacks get first Homestead rights in South
results
Results
  • 33% of Upper South Blacks own a farm
  • 20% of all Blacks
  • Why no redistribution? Too radical for a bunch of laissez-faire economists
  • Most blacks and whites are tenant farmers / sharecroppers by 1900.
    • Sharecroppers rent land with part of their crops
freedmen migration
Freedmen--Migration
  • Many former slaves hit the road once free and move around a year or two
  • Many move to the cities because there is lots of work, even if wages = poor.
freedmen religion
Freedmen--Religion
  • Churches usually segregated, but whites and blacks follow same religions
  • Churches serve as a major community hub
    • Provide experience in managing and organizing things
      • Used for clubs, businesses, fraternities, etc.
  • Focus for defense of civil rights
the lincoln plan
The Lincoln Plan
  • States now federal territories
  • 10% of voters must swear allegiance
  • Must ban slavery
  • A minimalist plan
  • Lincoln dies, only applied in Tennessee.
the johnson plan 1865 1867
The Johnson Plan (1865-1867)
  • States exist, but former Confederates can't vote
    • Under $20,000 dollars property folk can get easy pardon
    • Rich must apply to president
  • No protection of former slaves
  • Johnson hopes poor whites will rule!
southern response
Southern Response
  • Southerners resist any changes
    • Re-elect ex-confederates
    • Institute 'Black Codes', which limit freedom of ex-slaves, force them to work for others
congress fights back
Congress Fights Back
  • December 1865—Congress in session
  • Congress’ Desires
      • Extend Suffrage to Blacks
      • Protect Civil Rights of Ex-Slaves
      • The Whites had to acknowledge these civil rights
congress vs south round 1 fight
Congress vs. South, Round 1, Fight!
  • Civil Rights Act of 1866
    • All born in US are citizens!
    • Mainly protects business / court rights
  • Fourteenth Amendment
    • All born in US are citizens!
    • Defends basic rights of citizens to life, liberty and property
    • No ex-Confederates in office
    • Confederate debts NEVER to be paid
1866 mid term elections
1866 Mid-Term Elections
  • Johnson opposes the Republicans
    • Goes on a speaking tour before 1866 elections
    • This is unusual
    • He fails miserably
  • Congressional Reconstruction Begins
congress vs andrew johnson
Congress vs. Andrew Johnson
  • Tenure of Office Act—No firing anyone without Senate saying yes.
  • Andrew Johnson fires Secretary of War Edwin Stanton to control the generals for Military Reconstruction
  • Congress tries to impeach Johnson.
    • House: YES
    • Senate: No by 1 vote
1868 election23
1868 Election
  • Ulysses S. Grant (Moderate Republican) vs. Horatio Seymour (Democrat)
  • Grant wins: 52.66% Popular, 214 EV vs 80.
  • Grant takes 7 Southern states
    • Black support is key
the grant administration
The Grant Administration
  • 1869: Fifteenth Amendment—All adult males can vote, 21+
  • Grant is not very experienced
    • Failure of oversight
    • Some appointees are corrupt
    • Conflict between reformers and 'stalwarts' (who are more interested in perks of office)
the southern republican party
The Southern Republican Party
  • Southern Poor to Middling Whites: “Scaliwags”
    • Debt Relief, Education, Roads
  • Northern Whites: “Carpetbaggers”
    • Economic Development, Civil Rights
  • Southern Blacks
    • The Union Leagues.
      • 90% of Blacks Vote
      • Debt Relief, Land, Education, Civil Rights!
expansion of state government
Expansion of State Government
  • Debt and Stay Laws
  • Building Projects
  • Public Education
  • Child Support
  • Legal Aid
  • Medical Assistance
  • The Unfortunate Side Effects:
    • Higher Taxes
    • Corruption
counter reconstruction
Counter-Reconstruction
  • Racism
      • Racism used to divide poor whites and blacks in favor of 'white unity'
  • Violence
      • the Klu Klux Klan – Ex-Confederate murderers, rapists, and thugs who attacked former slaves and their white allies
      • Enforcement and Klu Klux Klan Acts
      • Allowed calling in federal help against political violence
failure of northern will
Failure of Northern Will
  • Many see Southern Republican governments as corrupt
  • Many don't care about black rights
  • Many care more about other issues:
    • Immigration
    • Fiscal Responsibility
    • Tariffs
    • Hard Money (This is a priority for Grant)
1872 liberal republican insurgency
1872: ‘Liberal Republican’ Insurgency
  • Some Republicans now revolt against corruption of the 'Stalwarts'
  • Platform:
      • Civil Service Reform
      • Tariff Reductions
      • End of Federal Grants to Railroads
      • Amnesty for Southern Whites
      • Southern Self-Government
1872 election
1872 Election
  • US Grant (Rep.) vs. Horace Greeley (Liberal Republicans + Democrats)
    • Grant wins: 55.58% of Popular, 286-66 EV
    • Greeley then dies.
redemption 1874 7
‘Redemption’: 1874-7
  • ‘Redeemers’ --Racist militia who aided Southern Democrats
    • They triggered growing violence
  • Civil Rights Act of 1875: No discrimination in public places
    • Useless vs. Violence
grant s failing administration
Grant's Failing Administration
  • Corruption:
    • 1874 Sanborn Incident
    • 1875 Whiskey Ring
    • 1876 Indian Trading Post Ring
  • Indian Wars
    • Gold in Black Hills; settlers invade Sioux land
    • Battle of Little Bighorn (1876)
1876 tilden v hayes
1876: Tilden v. Hayes
  • Samuel Tilden (D) vs. Rutherford B. Hayes (Rep.)
    • Election results disputed in Florida, Louisiana, South Carolina
    • No good way to resolve fairly
  • Compromise of 1877
    • Hayes becomes President
    • Hayes abandons Reconstruction
the failure of reconstruction
The Failure of Reconstruction
  • The Lost Cause
  • Survival of Segregation
  • Sharecropping
  • Slaughterhouse Cases (1873)
  • United States vs. Cruikshank (1876)
  • Gutting of Protections