RECONSTRUCTION • The term Reconstruction refers to: * *
Key Questions 1. How do webring the Southback into the Union? 4. What branchof governmentshould controlthe process ofReconstruction? 2. How do we rebuild the South after itsdestruction during the war? 3. How do weintegrate andprotect newly-emancipatedblack freedmen?
Lincoln's Plan= “ ” • 1. • 2.
Lincoln’s Plan cont… * * April 14, 1865-
Wade-Davis Bill (1864) • . SenatorBenjaminWade(R-OH) CongressmanHenryW. Davis(R-MD)
13th Amendment (1865)- banned slavery in the United States… • Problem- Southern states found loopholes in the 13th Amendment (Black Codes- took away many rights).
PHASE 1:Presidential Reconstruction • President Andrew Johnson’s reconstruction had two main aims: • First, southern states had to create new governments that were loyal to the Union and respected federal authority. • Second, slavery had to be abolished once and for all.
Another Problem • The Radical Republicans in Congressbypassed Johnson's vetoes with a super majority vote.
Johnson’s Reconstruction • President Johnson’s Reconstruction plan required former Confederate states to ratify the Thirteenth Amendment before they could rejoin the Union. Limited Citizenship Full Citizenship
The 14th Amendment • President Johnson opposed this and tried to get Southern states to do so also. This delayed passage of the amendment for two years. • The Radical Republicans in Congress decided it was time to take care of Johnson who they felt stood in the way of their Reconstruction policies.
Reconstruction Acts-passed over Johnson’s Veto • Dissolving their state governments punished the 10 Southern states that had voted against the 14th amendment. These states were also placed under martial law.
States could reenter the Union when: • A Constitutional convention was called. • A new state constitution was created, and accepted by the people of the state and Congress. • .
The Tenure of Office Act (1867) • Stated that the President could not remove cabinet members without the approval of the Senate. Pres. Johnson then fired Sec. Of War and set up a showdown!
The House began impeachment proceedings against Johnson saying that he broke the law. • The House votes to impeach Johnson • Johnson is found not guilty by 1 vote in the Senate. • This saved the power of the Presidency
Education for former slaves • The Freedman’s Bureau set up many schools, which were open to men, women and children. During this time, the government, volunteers and private groups were able to educate over a million former slaves and their children.
Contract System • With the demand for cotton still being high, plantation owners needed workers. Former slaves now entered into contracts with plantation owners and were paid for their work. • Pay was still low
Sharecropping • Farmers (mostly African Americans) were rented a piece of land to farm by the plantation owner. The farmer paid the rent at harvest time. Most of the time the farmer didn’t have enough money to pay the rent, which began a cycle of debt, which was almost impossible to break out of.
Ku Klux Klan • group designed to intimidate former slaves and Republicans in the south. The KKK used lynching and other means to restore control of the south to the planters and Democrats.
Reconstruction Ends • Election of 1868- Ulysses S. Grant won easily- war hero – election was fairly close and the “freedman’s” vote in the south gave Grant the edge.
15th Amendment (1870) • Protected former slaves voting rights. Acceptance of this amendment was another condition placed on Southern states for readmission to the Union. • By 1870 all Southern states had reentered the Union
Scandal and Panic • Scandal – many of Grant’s advisors were guilty of taking bribes, which hurt the credibility of Grant’s administration and the Republican Party.
Panic of 1873 – economic depression lasting about five years. The depression was caused by bank failures, which affected many aspects of the U.S. economy. • allowed Democrats to gain power and people in the North lost interest in Reconstruction
Presidential Election of 1876 • Close race between Samuel Tilden (Dem. from NY) and Rutherford B. Hayes (Rep. from Ohio). Neither candidate had enough electoral votes so it was decided in the House of Representatives. Hayes got support from the South and won the election by promising to:
Withdraw Federal troops from the South • Appoint a Southern member to his cabinet • Send $ to the South to help rebuild
THE END • This ended the reconstruction period in U.S. history and signaled the beginning of a new era in the South (segregation, Jim Crow laws, the Ku Klux Klan).