The Enlightenment The Age of Reason Ch.22.2 and 22.3
Enlightenment Basics Where: Europe (including Russia) What: Age of Reason, believed that reason could answer every question When: Approximately 1600 – 1800
How did people try to make sense of their world? Before the Enlightenment During and After The Enlightenment • People relied upon tradition and superstition • Nostalgia-if it happened in the past, it must be good • Allowed the Church to do their thinking for them • Irrationalism (did not rely upon reason, but emotion • Rationalism (relied upon reason) • Empiricism (results must be measurable) • Tolerance (of others ideas) • Skepticism (questioned established thought • Deism (the clockmaker God) • Equality
Philosophes Advocate Reason • Men of letters who wrote for public consumption, using humor, wit, satire • This group originated in France • Believed people could apply reason to all aspects of life. • Philosophes included Voltaire, Rousseau and Diderot Philosophe: The French word for philosopher
Core Beliefs of the Philosophes • REASON • NATURE • HAPPINESS • PROGRESS • LIBERTY • Just as reason had been applied to science during the Scientific Revolution, reason could be used to improve the lives of people and to find the truth! • “Rationalism”- the rejection of superstition and tradition Free Powerpoint template from www.brainybetty.com
Thomas Hobbes, England (1588-1679) • Influenced by the English Civil War (sided with the king) • Human Nature = people have a desire for power and are in constant conflict because of it • People were cruel, greedy and selfish • If people weren’t controlled there would be chaos • Hobbes’ Social Contract-People gave up some control to live in an organized society • Favored Absolute Monarchy Ideas outlined in: Leviathan
Leviathan • Title Page Illustration of book • Ruler is pictured as absolute lord of his lands, but note that the ruler incorporates the mass of individuals whose self-interests are best served by their willing consent to accept him and cooperate with him.
John Locke, 1632-1704 Natural rights • People were guided by reason and good will • People had natural rights or rights that belonged to all humans from birth (life, liberty and property) • People formed govn’ts to protect their natural rights (Consent of the governed) • If a govn’t doesn’t do its job, the people can overthrow it! Ideas outlined in Two Treatises on Civil Government
Voltaire (Francois Marie Arouet) 1694-1788 • Targeted corrupt officials • Attacked the French gov’t and the Catholic Church • Was imprisoned and forced into exile • “I do not agree with a word that you say but I will defend to the death your right to say it.” • “Men have made themselves slaves to their needs.” Advocated: Freedom of Speech Freedom of Religious Belief
Baron de Montesquieu, 1689-1755 • Admired Britain for being politically balanced-three separate branches (legislative, executive and judicial) • Felt that each branch should be a check on each other • Future influence?
Baron de Montesquieu Advocated: • Separation of Powers • Checks and Balances Ideas outlined in: On the Spirit of Laws
Jean Jacques Rousseau, 1712-1788 • Man was born neither good nor evil but is corrupted by society • Society makes people unequal, and therefore, unhappy. • The Social Contract- Govn’t is an agreement made by the people, and rulers serve by the general will of the people. • Also believed in consent of the governed. • “Man is born free, and everywhere he is in chains.” Ideas outlined in: The Social Contract
CesareBeccaria, 1738-1794 • Laws exist to preserve socialorder, not to avenge crimes. • Torture and Capital punishment should be abolished! • The punishment should fit the crime • Innocent until proven guilty • The accused should get a speedy trial. Crime and Punishment
Mary Wollstonecraft, 1759-1797 • During this time, women were treated poorly • Women, like men, need an education in order to be virtuous and useful. • Women should enter fields of politics and medicine. Women’s Rights
The Enlightenment SpreadsCh.22.3 • Enlightenment ideas spread despite persecution • Books, magazines, word of mouth • Salons- philosophers, writers, artists, scientists, etc. gathered in the homes of wealthy women to discuss ideas Free Powerpoint template from www.brainybetty.com Newspapers, pamphlets and political songs also spread Enlightenment ideas to a growing literate, middle class.
The Salonnieres MademoiselleJulie de Lespinasse(1732*-1776) MadameSuzanne Necker(1739-1794) Madame Geoffrin(1699-1777)
The Enlightenment Spreads (continued) Denis Diderot - The Encyclopedia - a compilation of all knowledge!
The Encyclopedia “No man has received from nature the right to command others.... The government, although hereditary in a family…, is not private property, but public property that consequently can never be taken from the people, to whom it belongs exclusively…. It is not the state that belongs to the prince, it is the prince who belongs to the state.” “It is of the greatest importance to conserve this practice [the free press] in all states founded on liberty.” “The buying of Negroes, to reduce them to slavery, is one business that violates religion, morality, natural laws, and all the rights of human nature.”
Sample Pages of the Encyclopedia Shoes Button-making
The Impact on the Art World • Baroque style of art (characterized by grand, ornate style) was replaced by Neoclassical style, which was more simple and elegant. • Classical music also reflected Enlightenment ideas • light, elegant and structured • Haydn, Mozart, and Beethoven rank as perhaps the greatest figures of the classical period • Writers began writing novels, which appealed to a middle-class audience Free Powerpoint template from www.brainybetty.com
Reading During the Enlightenment • Literacy: - 80 % for men, 60 % women • Books were expensive (one day’s wages) • Many readers for each book - novels, plays & other literature - journals, memoirs, “private lives” - philosophy, history, theology - newspapers, political pamphlets - often censored by governments
The Enlightenment and Monarchy • Philosophes favored the Enlightened Despot, a monarchy in which the ruler respected the people’s rights • Frederick II of Prussia • Joseph II of Austria • Catherine the Great of Russia Free Powerpoint template from www.brainybetty.com
Frederick the Great • Granted religious freedoms • Reduced censorship • Improved education • Reformed the justice system • Abolished the use of torture • Called himself “the first servant of the state.” “Uncle Fritz” of Prussia Did a lot, but didn’t try to change the existing social order Free Powerpoint template from www.brainybetty.com
Joseph II • Succeeded Maria Theresa • Introduced legal reforms and freedom of the press • Supported freedom of worship • Abolished serfdom • Ordered that peasants be paid for their work Joseph II of Austria Nobles resisted these changes and undid them after his death Free Powerpoint template from www.brainybetty.com
Catherine the Great • Well-educated • Proposed many reforms but very little was accomplished • Recommended religious toleration and an abolition of torture and capital punishment • Did little to improve the lives of the serfs • Greatly expanded Russia’s empire Catherine the Great of Russia She may have been enlightened, but she still probably had her husband murdered! Free Powerpoint template from www.brainybetty.com
Legacy of the Enlightenment • Divine Right of Monarchs would be challenged- Advocated a more democratic-style of government- the Enlightened Despot • A Belief in Progress: Success of the Scientific Revolution made people believe human reason could solve social problems (slavery, social inequality, etc.) • A More Secular Outlook: People openly questioned religious beliefs- tried to get rid of superstition and fear Free Powerpoint template from www.brainybetty.com
Importance of the Individual! • People turned away from the church and royalty for guidance, and looked to themselves instead! • Government was formed by individuals to promote their welfare • Some Kings and Queens would attempt to apply Enlightenment ideas to their rule • Philosophes encourages people to use their own reason (Ex: Immanuel Kant-nonage) • Coming soon…Revolution!!! Free Powerpoint template from www.brainybetty.com
The Age of Revolution!!! American Revolution French Revolution Free Powerpoint template from www.brainybetty.com