Fall Prevention Training for Southern Nevada Construction WorkersInstructor’s ManualOSHA Susan Harwood Training Grant: Construction Safety UNLV Construction Management Program UNLV School of Nursing
Disclaimer • This material was produced under grant SH-19506-09-60-F-32 from the Occupational Safety and Health Administration, U.S. Department of Labor. It does not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the U.S. Department of Labor, nor does mention of trade names, commercial products, or organizations imply endorsement by the U.S. Government.
Employees’ Rights and Responsibilitiesunder OSHA The Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 (OSH Act) is the federal law that established the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), the federal agency responsible for ensuring workplace safety. The law and OSHA’s standards specify what employers must do to make sure employees’ safety and health are protected. They also require employees to follow all OSHA rules that apply to them. “I want you to go home in the afternoon,in the same condition you came to work this morning.” Andy Macias
What OSHA Requires Employers to Do • Employers must provide safe work places. • Must get rid of hazards • Must obey all OSHA rules
What OSHA Requires from You • Understand and follow OSHA rules • Example: Wear safety equipment • See and report safety hazards in the workplace.
More About OSHA • OSHA is your partner in safety and health. • OSHA has Standards (rules) for construction employers and employees. • Those rules require employers to train you in construction safety.
Beyond the slogans, the grim realities: Over 5,000 Americans die from on-the-job accidents every year – and a worker is injured every 19 seconds.
What We Will Talk About in This Class • General Information about Fall Hazards
What We Will Talk About in This Class • What is Fall Prevention?
What We Will Talk About in This Class • When is Fall Prevention Needed
What We Will Talk About in This Class • Fall Prevention Choices
What We Will Talk About in This Class • Fall Prevention Training
What We Will Talk About in This Class • Assertiveness Training
What We Will Talk About in This Class • Fall Prevention Planning and Rescue
General Information • Falls kill more construction workers than any other cause.
General Information • Workers can be killed by falling from open-sided floors and through floor openings.
General Information • Workers can be hurt or killed if they fall from as little as 4 to 6 feet.
General Information • Open-sided floors and platforms 6 feet or more in height must have a guard to keep you from falling. Open Sided Floors Platforms 6 feet or more
General Information • Falls happen from ladders, roofs, and scaffolds.
Dnager • You are most at risk being seriously hurt or killed when you work in or near: - Tower construction - Scaffold ladders and platforms - Holes - Skylights - Edges - Roofs - Elevator shafts - Ladder side rails - Decking and plywood
What Can I Do to Stay Safe? • Make sure you can tell when a work site is risky for falls from heights. • When a work site has a fall risk, take Fall Prevention steps. • Fall Prevention steps will keep you safe!
What Does Fall Prevention Do? Catch The Fall Stop/Prevent The Fall Restraint/Positioning Fall Arrest Guardrails Safety Nets Warning Lines Catch Platforms Controlled Access Zones Controlled Decking Zones Safety Monitors
The Steps of Fall Prevention • Prevent the fall through guards or other ways to hold workers back from falls. • Put workers in safe places away from the fall risk. • If a fall occurs, arrest (stop) the fall. • Rescue the fallen person as soon as you can.
FallProtection: Where and What? • What things on the job site call for the use of fall prevention? • What choices are good to keep workers from falling?
When Fall Prevention is Needed • Tower construction • Scaffold ladders and platform • Skylights • Walkways & ramps • Open sides & edges • Holes • Concrete forms & rebar • Excavations • Elevator shafts • Ladder side rails • Decking & plywood • Roofs • Wall openings • Bricklaying • Residential construction
Fall Prevention Needed • Tower Construction • Many construction deaths from falling happen here. • Workers fall while talking on cell phones and using pagers. • Fall from towers cause the most deaths on construction sites.
Fall Prevention Needed Scaffold platforms
Fall Prevention Needed • Skylights http://www.dllr.state.md.us/
Skylights and Other Openings • Holes more than 6 feet high must be protected • Look for a guardrail or strong cover to be present
FallPreventionNeeded • Walkways and Ramps Guard ramps, runways, and other walkways
Fall Prevention Needed • Edges • Open sides protected by permanent or temporary guardrails. • Caution tape can help prevent a serious or fatal fall. http://www.barricadelites.com http://www.sfgov.org/
Unprotected Sides & Edges Unprotected edge Must have guardrails or something similar
Open Sides and Edges Must have guardrails or something similar
Sides & Edges – Wrong Guarding This 1/4" nylon rope is not the right way to guard this open floor
Case Report of DeathDuetoUnprotectedSides • Death due to unprotected sides • A supervisor was measuring the first floor of a building. The balcony of the building was unguarded. While taking measurements, he fell backward from the balcony to the concrete 10 ft below. He hit his head on the floor and died.
Fall Prevention Needed • Holes • Protect any hole bigger than 2 inches by 2 inches! • Big danger when the hole is 1 foot by 1 foot! • Many workers will walk right to the edge of a big hole even if they have been trained to stay 6 feet away!
Floor Holes Improperly Covered • Cover completely and securely • If no cover, can guard with a guardrail
Floor Holes Improperly protected • Cover completely and securely • If not, use personal fall arrest system
Case Report of DeathDuetoUnprotectedFloorHoles • Death due to unprotected floor holes • A construction worker was working on the first floor of a building. There were holes in the floor that were not properly covered. The worker was not wearing a personal fall arrest system (harness). There was no safety net below the floor. He stepped on the hole while working and fell 10 ft on the concrete ground. He hit his head on the floor and died.
FallPreventionNeeded • Concrete Forms and Rebar • Use personal fall arrest system when working on formwork or rebar • Cover or cap protruding rebar
FallPreventionNeeded • Unguarded Protruding Steel Rebar • Unguarded steel rebars that stick out (protrude) are dangerous! • It you trip onto one, you can get injured or killed.
WaystoAvoidHazardsfromSteelRebarsthatStickOut • Cover all protruding ends of steel rebar with rebar caps, or • Bend rebar so exposed ends are no longer upright • Use a personal fall arrest system while working at any height above rebar not completely inside concrete
FallPreventionNeeded • Excavations • Guard excavations more than 6 feet deep In addition to needing guarding, this excavation is not properly shored
FallPreventionNeeded • Excavations • These workers are not protected from a cave-in • There is no safe access or egress from the trench
Fall Prevention Needed • Elevator shaft hazards • Workers are curious and look in. • Use barricades (something to block the opening) in open space of elevator shafts • Inspect barricade systems often. http://farm2.static.flickr.com
Fall Prevention Needed • Ladder Side Rails
Fall Prevention Needed • Decking and Plywood
Fall Prevention Needed • Roofs • Parapets height must be 42 inches +/- 3 inches. http://www.carryduffdesigns.co.uk