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From Republic to Empire. Section 2. Growing Inequality and Unrest and A New Role for the Army. The Senate governed Rome – made up of a small group of wealthy families Many small farmers lost their land to large land owners – led to political unrest

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growing inequality and unrest and a new role for the army
Growing Inequality and Unrest and A New Role for the Army
  • The Senate governed Rome – made up of a small group of wealthy families
  • Many small farmers lost their land to large land owners – led to political unrest
  • Tiberius & Gaius Gracchus (aristocrats) called for the land to be returned to the “landless poor” – group of senators killed both brothers – discontent and unrest grew
    • Marius
      • Promised “landless poor” land in return they had to fight in the army
      • Generals become political power
    • Sulla
      • Civil War against Marius and Sulla
      • Sulla restores power to the Senate
the collapse of the republic
The Collapse of the Republic
  • Victorious leaders during civil wars
    • Crassus, Pompey and Julius Caesar
    • Create the First Triumvirate in 60 B.C.
      • Triumvirate: a government of 3 people with equal power
      • Each man had a military command
Crassus was killed and the Senate named Pompey as the new ruler
  • Julius Caesar refused to give up his command
  • In 45 B.C. Caesar and his loyal army defeated Pompey – Caesar becomes the dictator
    • Gives land to the poor
    • Expanded the Senate to 900 members (all his supporters)
    • Assassinated in 44 B.C.
new triumvirate
New Triumvirate
  • Octavian, Antony & Lepidus
    • Octavian and Antony divided the Roman World – Octavian (West) & Antony (East)
    • Antony allied w/Cleopatra VII (lovers)
    • Octavian defeated them in 31 B.C.
    • Both committed suicide
    • The Roman Republic ended
the age of augustus
The Age of Augustus
  • “The restoration of the Republic”
    • Octavian limited the power of the Senate
    • Named himself emperor; Given the “Augustus” by the Senate
    • Army is his chief source of power
      • 28 legions of 5,000 troops each (citizens only)
      • 130,000 auxiliary forces
      • 9,000 men for the praetorian guard (guarded emperor)
the early empire a d 14 180
The Early Empire, A.D. 14 -180
  • Emperor picked his successor from his family, adopted or natural
    • Tiberius
    • Caligula: probably insane murdered by Praetorians
    • Claudius: lame, stuttered thought to be dull witted
    • Nero: Killed anyone who got in his way (mother); Extremely powerful; legions revolted against him – committed suicide
    • PROBLEM: Emperor gained power and became more corrupt
good emperors
“Good Emperors”
  • Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, Antoninus Pius, and Marcus Aurelius
  • Time of peace & prosperity – “Pax Romana” (“Roman Peace”)
    • Respected the ruling class
    • Appointed officials ran the government
    • Adopted capable men to be successors
    • Instituted programs to help the poor educate their children and to create building projects
expanding the empire
Expanding the Empire
  • Empire had expanded into parts of Romania, Mesopotamia, and other regions
  • Hadrian realized the empire was too large
    • Became defensive along Rome’s frontiers
    • Built a wall in northern Britain to keep out the Picts and Scots
    • Defending the empire became increasingly difficult
The Early empire was prosperous
  • Internal peace helped trade grow
  • Farming remained the basis of Rome’s prosperity

The End