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Colonial Resistance Grows. In the Beginning…. Britain and France fight for control of North America and unclaimed territory. Known as French & Indian War (1754-1763). Britain wins. Following war, British Parliament begins to tighten control over colonies. Colonists forced to:

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in the beginning
In the Beginning…
  • Britain and France fight for control of North America and unclaimed territory.
    • Known as French & Indian War (1754-1763).
    • Britain wins.
  • Following war, British Parliament begins to tighten control over colonies.
  • Colonists forced to:
    • Not pass Appalachian Mountains(did anyways: farmland)
    • House British soldiers w/o consent or help (wanted to kill ‘em, but didn’t)
in the beginning1
In the Beginning…
  • Following French & Indian War, Britain is also broke.
  • Needing money, American colonies are taxed heavily for first time ever.
  • Taxes placed on :
    • Sugar (molasses & sugar)
    • Stamps (paper products)
  • Sons of Liberty & Daughters of Liberty created to begin protests of new British taxes and restrictions.
tightening control
Tightening Control
  • Americans begin boycottingon British goods to avoid British taxes.
    • boycott – refusal to buy.
  • To avoid protests, Britain passes Townshend Acts.
    • Goods taxed as they sail into port, not in store.
  • Acts also gives British officers “writs of assistance” to search houses for smuggled goods (w/o permission).
colonists protest
Colonists Protest
  • Angry about taxes and limits on freedom, colonists begin to act out.
  • On March 5, 1770, an angry mob gathers outside Boston’s Statehouse to protest taxes.
  • As mob grows in size, British soldiers are sent out to protect house.
  • Mob begins to push towards the house as the troops order the mob back.
colonists protest cont d
Colonists Protest – cont’d.
  • As crowd pushes towards house, soldiers are reminded to not fire on the crowd.
  • A snowball is launched from the crowd, knocking a soldier off his feet.
  • Other soldiers around him open fire on the crowd, killing 5-6 civilians.
  • The event is written about in next day’s paper labeled the “Boston Massacre”.
homework 1
Homework #1
  • What did the Sugar Act tax?
  • What war caused Britain to go broke?
  • What were British officers searching for with “writs of assistance”?
  • What prompted soldiers to fire in the crowd during the Boston Massacre?
  • What did the Stamp Act tax?
colonists protest cont d1
Colonists Protest – cont’d.
  • Following Boston Massacre, Britain repeals all taxes, except on tea.
  • Colonists begin boycotting British tea, until all taxes repealed.
  • In response, Britain gives East India Tea Company (Britain-owned) exclusive trading rights w/ colonies.
  • Colonies , with help from Sons & Daughters of Liberty, begin organizing boycotts & protests.
colonists protest cont d2
Colonists Protest – cont’d.
  • As protest, colonists don’t allow British tea ships to dock or unload cargo (tea).
  • 3 British tea ships dock in Boston, but tea remained on ship.
  • Sons of Liberty, dressed as Native Americans, board ship and throw tea overboard.
  • 342 chests of tea are ruined ($1 million) during the protest.
colonists protest cont d3
Colonists Protest – cont’d.
  • Following the Boston Tea Party, Parliament passes the Intolerable Acts.
  • Acts did the following to the colonies:
    • Closed Boston Harbor until ruined tea paid for.
    • No town meetings in Mass.
    • Elected councils replaced w/ British appointed one.
    • Governor’s power over colonies increased.
    • Accused British officials protected from being tried by colonists.
    • British troops were placed in Boston houses to be cared for.
colonists protest cont d4
Colonists Protest – cont’d.
  • 1st Continental Congress meets in Philadelphia.
  • Delegates from all colonies (except GA) attended and agreed on:
    • All British trade banned until Intolerable Acts repealed.
    • All colonies should begin training troops/militia.
  • Independence wasn’t agreed upon, but discussed.
homework 2
Homework #2
  • What company was given exclusive trading rights with the colonies?
  • What did the Sons of Liberty dress up as during the Boston Tea Party?
  • How many chests of tea were ruined? How much money was that?
  • What was the act passed that was meant to punish Boston for the Boston Tea Party?
  • Where did the 1st Continental Congress meet?
revolution begins
Revolution Begins
  • British spies inform military about ammunition depot in Concord.
  • British military decides to march from Boston to Lexington/Concord (20 miles).
  • Their mission:
    • Arrest John Hancock & John Adams
    • Destroy ammunition in Concord.
revolution begins cont d
Revolution Begins – cont’d.
  • Paul Revere and Williams Dawes waited outside Boston for a signal to alert colonists.
  • Dr. Joseph Warren lit 1 lantern in church steeple to signal Revere’s ride.
  • British troops leave Boston around 5:00 a.m., heading for Concord & Lexington.
  • Revere & Dawes race ahead, warning all towns that the “regulars are coming out”.
revolution begins cont d1
Revolution Begins – cont’d.
  • At dawn of April 19, 1775, 900 British troops encountered a group of 70 minutemen (Mass. Militia) outside Lexington.
    • Hancock & Adams had already escaped, thanks to Revere’s warning.
  • As both sides lined up in rows, a shot rings out from the colonist’s side.
  • British troops return fire, killing 8 militia while the rest scattered.
revolution begins cont d2
Revolution Begins – cont’d.
  • When the British troops reach Concord, they find no ammunition to destroy and head back to Boston.
  • On the march back to Boston, British troops were continually ambushed by militia.
  • Of the 900 British troops that left Boston, nearly 1/3 were killed or wounded on the return trip.
  • Following Lexington & Concord, colonists had to choose between freedom (Patriots) or the crown they were loyal to (Loyalists).
homework 3
Homework #3
  • Who were the British military trying to arrest in Lexington?
  • What two people made a famous “Midnight Ride” to warn colonists of British troops march to Lexington & Concord?
  • What are the British troops trying to destroy in Concord?
  • Who were people that were loyal to the crown nicknamed?
  • Who were people that were fighting for freedom nicknamed?
road to revolution
Road to Revolution
  • Following Lexington/Concord, Continental Congress meets for 2nd time in Philadelphia on May 10th, 1775.
  • All delegates agree to create a Continental Army.
  • George Washington was chosen to lead new army.
road to revolution cont d
Road to Revolution – cont’d.
  • In June 1775, militia build fort on top of Breed’s Hill & Bunker Hill, overlooking Boston Harbor.
  • 2,200 British troops assemble at bottom of hill and attacks militia.
  • As first wave of British troops nears, militia are ordered not to fire “until you see the whites of their eyes.”
  • The first wave is pushed back down the hill.
road to revolution cont d1
Road to Revolution – cont’d.
  • A 2nd wave of British troops is formed, but also pushed back by militia.
  • A 3rd wave of British troops attacks and forces the militia to retreat.
    • Militia only retreats because they lacked ammunition.
  • Following battle, British suffer over 1,000 casualties.
  • Colonists begin signing up for duty in Continental Army, believing they could defeat British.
road to revolution cont d2
Road to Revolution – cont’d.
  • Olive Branch Petition is sent to King George III, hoping to avoid war.
  • He rejects it, responding by sending hired German troops to colonies.
  • British troops leave Boston, knowing city is under siege by 15,000 militia.
road to revolution cont d3
Road to Revolution – cont’d.
  • Even as British leave Boston, most colonists still undecided about which side to choose.
  • Thomas Paine, British immigrant, writes a pamphlet titled Common Sense.
  • In pamphlet, Paine reminded colonists why choosing the Patriot side was right choice:
    • All men should be allowed to vote.
    • All monarchies are corrupt.
    • Colonies will survive financially if they leave British protection.
homework 4
Homework #4
  • Who was chosen to lead Continental army?
  • What did colonial militia build on top of Bunker & Breed’s Hill that British attacked?
  • How many waves of British troops were needed to defeat colonists at Bunker Hill?
  • What is sent to King George III to prevent war?
  • Who writes the pamphlet called Common Sense?
preparing for war
Preparing for War
  • Colonies decide to declare independence before war begins, making colonists aware of their intentions.
  • Thomas Jefferson, along with others, put in charge of writing a document that would create a nation.
  • Declaration is read before Continental Congress on July 2.
    • Members debate whether to sign or not.
  • Colonies adopt the declaration on July 4, 1776.
    • John Hancock was first to sign; signed it the largest.
preparing for war cont d
Preparing for War – Cont’d.
  • Colonists divided about loyalties during war.
  • Those who remained loyal to Britain labeled Loyalists (25%).
  • Those who fought for freedom were labeled Patriots (50%).
  • Remaining colonists (25%) were neutral.
preparing for war cont d1
Preparing for War – cont’d.
  • Continental Army is formed; enlisted soldiers only asked to serve 1 year.
  • Washington struggles to keep a fully army intact
    • 17,000 is most Washington has at any point in war.
  • British army struggles to get soldiers to enlist.
  • To provide a full army, King George III hires mercenaries from Germany called Hessians.
tale of the tape
Tale of the Tape
  • Britain has obvious advantages:
    • Better officers
    • Professional, trained troops
    • Outstanding Navy
    • Endless supplies & funds
  • Colonists have three advantages:
    • Officers trained in British military tactics
    • Knew land they were fighting on
    • Fighting for independence, not paycheck
preparing for war cont d2
Preparing for War – cont’d.
  • As British troops left Boston, Washington rushes Continental Army to New York.
  • After months of fighting between sides, British force Washington to retreat to New Jersey.
  • Continental troops cross Delaware River on December 25, 1776 launching surprise attack on British forces at Trenton.
  • Continental army gets first victory of war due to Washington’s bold move.
preparing for war cont d3
Preparing for War – cont’d.
  • British had master plan for winning war: divide colonies in half at Hudson River.
  • Gen. John Burgoyne travels south from Canada to meet up with other British troops to cut off colonies.
  • Burgoyne gets stopped in Saratoga while waiting for reinforcements to arrive.
preparing for war cont d4
Preparing for War – cont’d.
  • Reinforcements never show up as Burgoyne’s troops run low on supplies.
  • Burgoyne surrenders after days of constant fire from Continental army.
  • Burgoyne’s surrender gives Continental army a boost of confidence.
  • Also shows other European nations that U.S. could win war with help.
revolutionary war1
Revolutionary War
  • Following victory at Saratoga, France and Spain ally themselves with colonies.
  • France agreed to send:
    • Troops
    • Supplies
    • Money
  • Spain sent money and officers to colonies for additional support.
homework 5
Homework #5
  • What percentage of colonists were thought to be neutral?
  • How long were soldiers in Continental Army asked to serve?
  • Where did General Washington get the Continental Army’s first victory on December 25, 1776?
  • What two European countries allied with the United States?
  • What three supplies did France send to colonies?
revolutionary war cont d
Revolutionary War – cont’d.
  • British Gen. Howe attacks Philadelphia, hoping to capture 2nd Continental Congress.
  • Washington rushes army to city to protect Congress and keep city out of British control.
  • Congress escapes; Washington loses and is forced out of city in late November 1777.
    • Howe and his troops stay in city through winter.
  • Washington and his troops set up camp at Valley Forge for oncoming winter.
preparing for war cont d5
Preparing for War – cont’d.
  • As troops arrive in Valley Forge, supplies are extremely low.
  • Soldiers lack blankets, proper clothing, food, and shoes.
    • Diseases such as dysentery, smallpox, & typhoid fever spread throughout camp.
  • Local farmers were loyalists, so they refused to feed starving soldiers.
  • Soldiers couldn’t buy food because U.S. currency was worthless.
preparing for war cont d6
Preparing for War – cont’d.
  • Hundreds of soldiers die from conditions; thousands more desert their posts.
  • Majority of army stays through harsh winter, despite enlistments being completed.
  • In Spring of 1778, Washington informs his troops of alliances w/ Spain and France.
    • Foreign supplies arrives shortly afterwards.
    • Baron Von Stueben & Marquis Lafayette train Continental army.
homework 6
Homework #6
  • Who was Gen. Howe hoping to capture in Philadelphia?
  • Following defeat in Philadelphia, where did Gen. Washington camp for the winter?
  • Why wouldn’t local farmers feed hungry American troops?
  • What 3 diseases spread throughout camp at Valley Forge?
  • What two foreign officers were credited with training American troops into a better army?
revolutionary war cont d1
Revolutionary War – cont’d.
  • Following multiple American victories in frontier and little success in northern colonies, Britain changes strategies.
  • Instead of fighting northern colonies, Britain moves war south.
    • More loyalists in southern colonies; Britain feels more support = more victories.
    • British also expected slaves to join their war effort after promised freedom.
revolutionary war cont d2
Revolutionary War – cont’d.
  • Britain wins battle at Charlestown and Camden, defeating overwhelmed American troops.
  • American militia start using ambushes to attack British.
  • With lack of information & supplies, British lose control of Southern colonies.
  • Gen. Cornwallis (Leader of Britain’s army) chases Colonial army around southern colonies, wearing his troops out.
revolutionary war cont d3
Revolutionary War – cont’d.
  • Believing Colonists were getting information from Virginia, Gen. Cornwallis sets up base in Yorktown, VA.
    • Set up there to receive supplies from British ships.
  • With Cornwallis trapped, Washington joins his army with other colonial forces outside Yorktown.
  • In August 1781, French navy arrives outside Yorktown and blockades town.
    • Prevents British from receiving supplies and escaping.
homework 7
Homework #7
  • What two reasons did the British have for moving the war south?
  • Why did the British feel they would have more success in southern colonies?
  • Which army was Gen. Cornwallis in charge of?
  • Following losses at Camden and Charlestown, what kind of attacks do the American (colonial) troops use to attack British supply lines and messengers?
  • What city in Virginia did Gen. Cornwallis move his troops to? What is unique about that city?
revolutionary war cont d4
Revolutionary War – cont’d.
  • British troops kept Colonial troops out of city for 2 ½ months, using redoubts (small cannon forts).
  • As Colonial troops take over forts, British troops fall back to city as Colonists continually bombard city.
  • With lack of supplies in Yorktown, British soldiers are:
    • Starving
    • Sick; in need of medicine/medical attention
    • In need of guns & ammo
revolutionary war cont d5
Revolutionary War – cont’d.
  • With many buildings in Yorktown turned to rubble and soldiers ailing, Gen. Cornwallis surrenders on October 19, 1781.
  • Cornwallis sends an officer out to hand over his sword.
    • Cornwallis pretended to be ill so he didn’t have to surrender in person.
  • Fighting continues in southern states following surrender, but not for long as news of Cornwallis surrender spreads.
revolutionary war cont d6
Revolutionary War – cont’d.
  • How America won against the mighty British military:
    • Fighting for cause, not money.
    • As Colonists won battles, more neutral people supported freedom.
    • Colonists military officers learned from mistakes; British officers didn’t.
    • Foreign allies aided colonies; British had none.
    • By end of war, most militia joined Continental army, increasing size to 250,000 against British force of 50,000-60,000.
    • Orders/supplies for British slow to arrive from Britain (4-6 months); Continental army supplies/orders only take days to arrive.
homework 8
Homework #8
  • How long did the British keep American troops out of Yorktown?
  • When did Cornwallis finally surrender?
  • Who officially surrender for Gen. Cornwallis?
  • Why didn’t Cornwallis surrender himself?
  • List 3 reasons why the Americans won against the British.
revolutionary war cont d7
Revolutionary War – cont’d.
  • Costs of the war:
    • 25,700 Colonial soldiers killed (estimated)
    • 8,200 Colonial soldiers wounded (estimated)
    • 10,000 British soldiers killed/wounded (estimated)
    • $27 million debt for U.S. (borrowed money to fund war)
    • Thousands of acres of farmland destroyed from battles
revolutionary war cont d8
Revolutionary War – cont’d.
  • Colonial leaders begin negotiating peace treaty with Britain on September 27, 1782.
    • Ben Franklin & John Adams among leaders present at negotiations.
  • Treaty of Paris officially ended the war after being signed on September 3, 1783.
revolutionary war cont d9
Revolutionary War – cont’d.
  • Americans gain following from Treaty of Paris:
    • Independence.
    • Boundaries increased to Mississippi River (west), Canada (north), & Spanish Florida (south).
    • Each side would repay debts owed each other (never happened).
    • Any slaves captured by British would be returned (never happened).
    • Any property taken by Patriots from Loyalists would be returned (never happened).
revolutionary war cont d10
Revolutionary War – cont’d.
  • With newly-earned independence, American colonies begin ruling themselves w/o central gov’t.
  • In 1777, 2nd Continental Congress adopted plan creating Articles of Confederation (took charge in 1781).
    • Articles 1st attempt at a central gov’t.
    • EXTREMELY limited in power.
    • Could only wage war and sign treaties.
revolutionary war cont d11
Revolutionary War – cont’d.
  • Northern colonists begin debating about presence of slavery & religious freedom in colonies.
    • 2 states (Vermont, Pennsylvania) outlaw slavery while others debate it.
  • Despite efforts of freed slaves & northern abolitionists, slavery continued in U.S. (especially in south).
  • Religious freedom is also debated and adopted in some states.
homework 9
Homework #9
  • What was the name of the treaty that ended the war?
  • How many colonial soldiers were killed (estimated)?
  • What two states outlawed slavery?
  • Besides independence, list 2 other provisions America gained from their victory in the war.