John O’Sullivan used the term manifest destiny in the New York newspaper saying: • “it is manifest destiny to overspread and to possess the whole of the continent which Providence has given us.”
Manifest Destiny What O’Sullivan meant by that is that the United States was clearly destined to expand it’s way of life all the way to the Pacific coast.
Can you see all the pieces of Propaganda in this painting of the idea of Manifest Destiny? Can you see all the pieces of Propaganda in this painting of the idea of Manifest Destiny ? This painting (circa 1872) by John Gast called American Progress, is an symbolic representation of Manifest Destiny. Here Columbia, the feminine personification of the United States of America, leads civilization westward with American settlers.
1844 Presidential Election James K. Polk Henry Clay • Democratic candidate. • Whig candidate. • The slogan referred to the line of latitude that the democrats believed should be the nations border • Did not take a strong position on the border. • Used the slogan 54’40’ or fight. Results… Senator Henry Clay in a Daguerreotype taken in 1849 by Photographer Matthew Brady
In 1824, Russia surrenders claim to its land south of Alaska. Four Nations claimed the Oregon Country Russia Great Britain Secretary of State John Q Adams negotiated the Adams-Onis Treaty with Spain in 1819 USA Spain
Four Nations claimed the Oregon Country U.S. negotiates joint occupation of the area with Britain! (Convention of 1818) Great Britain USA
Mountain men were people who spent most of their time on the Rocky Mountains Mountain Man Mountain men met to trade once a year at a rendezvous where they could also help Oregon Trail travelers find their way and replenish supplies they needed.
Emigrants were pioneers that left the already established United States to go to Oregon!
The Oregon Trail was the easiest passage west The path started at Independence Missouri, Went across the great plains, Along the Platte River, Through the South Pass of the Rocky Mountains and into the Oregon Territory.
Can you see how the Rocky Mountains influenced the path that became the Oregon Trail?
On the Trail Can you imagine taking an entire wagon train through land like this? Men Women Drove Wagons, attended to the animals, and hunted. Cared for children, cooked, and watched fires.
How did Spanish land in Texas become Mexican Land? In 1819, very few people were living in Spanish Texas. The people who did live there were called Tejanos (Mexicans that claimed Texas for settlement). In 1820, Spain was unable to defend its colony anymore. Mexico declared its independence from Spain, taking Texas with it (1821). Sound Familiar?
and settles along the Brazos River and… the Colorado River.
More Americans would follow Austin's lead and live in Texas Problems Anyone?
His group later becomes known as the Old 300 This map shows land claims from 1833. Notice that the Austin Colony is near Galveston Bay .
Texans were angered with Mexico’s government because the Mexican government stopped immigration with the U.S.
In October of 1835, General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna (Mexico) sent troops in to Gonzales, in Texas, to punish the rebels. Conflict begins at the town of Gonzales! (Mexicans tried to seize Texan cannons) "Come and take it" was a slogan used in the Texas Revolution in 1835. Remember… this is not what Texas looked like in 1835!
At the minor skirmish known as the Battle of Gonzales, a small group of Texans successfully resisted the Mexican forces who had orders to seize their cannon. As a symbol of defiance, the Texans had fashioned a flag containing the phrase along with a black star and an image of the cannon which they had received six years earlier from the hands of a Mexican official.
EARLY WAR... The Texans scored a important early victory at San Antonio. San Antonio brings confidence to the Texans similar to Concord and Bunker Hill in the Revolution .
Mad about the loss, Santa Anna marched his troops north where they found a small Texan force barricaded inside the Alamo Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna
Davy Crockett and the tough Texan volunteers held Santa Anna off For 12 days, until final the Mexicans stormed the fortress and kill all the defenders leaving only a few women and children to tell the story.
"Remember the Alamo! Remember Goliad!" But... Was the Alamo Really a Victory? • Much needed time to regroup and prepare • A rallying cry for the rest of the war. The Mexican constitution of 1824 gave the people of Texas rights similar to those enjoyed at the time by the citizens of the United States, but every new Mexican government attempted to increase control over Texas. To call attention to this, Texans removed the coat of arms from the center of a Mexican flag, and replaced it with the date of the constitution. It was this banner that flew from the walls of the Alamo.
End of the War… After the loss at the Alamo, Sam Houston lead an army of about 800 to fight a battle at San Jacinto (near present day Houston). Sam Houston at San Jacinto
Houston’s army had great success, killing 600 and capturing 700 more Mexican soldiers (including Santa Anna).
Santa Anna than signed a treaty that recognized the independence of Texas The painting "Surrender of Santa Anna" by William Huddle shows the Mexican strong-man surrendering to a wounded Sam Houston
Annexation = take over The original (or "Burnet") flag of Texas (1836–1839)
Once Independent Texas wanted to become part of the United States, but Andrew Jackson refused to let them. Jackson didn’t want to stir up the issue of adding a slave state or risk war with Mexico themselves!
Texas operates as it’s own country for 9 years! (1836 – 1845) The First Flag Of The Republic!
Texas became a state during James K. Polk’s presidency (election promise). On December 29th 1845, he admitted Texas into the United States.
December 29th 1845, he admitted Texas into the United States. This was their state flag they used!
New Mexico Territory William Becknell Went to trade Took the Santa Fe Trail In the early 1800’s New Mexico was the vast territory between Texas and California Others followed in his footsteps. William Becknell was able to make a 2000% profit trading! He could buy something for $1 and sell it for $21!
California • In 1821, California became a state in the Mexican nation. • The first Americans were there to trade and go whaling • Americans wanted to add California as a state because of its mild climate, scenic beauty, and abundant resources. • President Polk offered to buy California and New Mexico twice, but Mexico refused.
After Mexico Refuses Polk’s offer, General Zachary Taylor marches his soldiers across the disputed border. (the Rio Grande River) The Mexican-American War
Between the Nueces and Rio Grande R., troops build a fort that later gets attacked by Mexican soldiers And the War Begins...
California became a republic after a small group of farmers seized the town of Sonoma and started the republic of California ! (1846)
The farmers new country was called the Bear Flag Republic because their flag showed a bear on it! Duh!