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NEXT TIME. Read pp . 36-49. What is science?. Body of knowledge Way of learning. Why is it important to be scientifically literate?. Be skeptical, why is that important? Lots of people will make false claims, often to sell you products.

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Presentation Transcript
Next time

  • Read pp. 36-49

What is science
What is science?

  • Body of knowledge

  • Way of learning

Why is it important to be scientifically literate
Why is it important to be scientifically literate?

  • Be skeptical, why is that important? Lots of people will make false claims, often to sell you products

What is the scientific method
What is the scientific method?

  • A methodical way of understanding the world

  • A way of connecting cause and event unambiguously

  • Rigorous method of testing hypotheses

Scientific method
Scientific Method

  • Make observations (observe something in the natural world)

  • Formulate hypothesis (a statement explaining the phenomenon)

    • Establish mutually exclusive explanations

    • Generates testable predictions

      • “Whenever I come home my dog barks and runs in circles”

      • Hyp: My return home causes my dog to freak out

Scientific method1
Scientific Method

  • Devise testable prediction

    • A more precise version of the hypothesis

      • My return home causes a change in behavior in my dog

Scientific method2
Scientific Method

  • Conduct critical experiment – this part of the process is more difficult than it sounds

  • Draw conclusions & make predictions

    • Hypothesis supported or rejected?

    • Often this leads to more questions, more experiments

  • Share results

    • This introduces more minds, more ideas into the process

Scientific method3
Scientific Method

  • This process is generally NOT LINEAR, but each step can lead back to previous steps

    • During the experiment, you make more observations that change your hypothesis

    • While drawing conclusions you see how to make your experiment better

    • Or change your question altogether

Experiment lingo
Experiment lingo…

  • Controlling variables

    • Dependent and Independent

  • Treatment(experimental variable) – what you’re doing to your experimental group

  • Experimental group – the group of subjects (people, mice, plants) that you’re exposing to your treatment

  • Control group – treated identically to the experimental group, but not given the treatment (given placebo, nothing, etc.)

Good experiments
Good Experiments

  • Repeatability & sample size

    • Repeating an experiment and getting the same results shows that the findings are strong.

    • The more individuals you test, the more sure you can be of your results

Good experiments1
Good Experiments

  • Biases effect scientific experimentation at every level

    • Subconsciously we will push for our desired results.

    • Don’t trust yourself! Just design a good experiment you can trust!


  • The math we use to determine whether or not the results of our experiments show true differences or just randomness in the sample.

How to read graphs
How to read graphs...

  • Two axes

  • Points refer to a spot on both axes

Things to include on any graph
Things to include on any graph

  • Title

  • Two axes

    • Each needs a label, numbers, and units

  • Data

    • Can be points, line, etc.

Graph practice
Graph Practice