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Common Requirements of living things - ANIMALS – Chapter 5. Movement of substances into & out of unicellular organisms. Passive diffusion in and out. Cell Specialisation in Simple Multicellular Organisms. Sponge feeding. Cell Specialisation in Simple Multicellular Organisms.
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Passive diffusion in and out
Animal’s bodies are composed of different systems, each system has it’s own functions.
All together these systems work together to enable the animal to survive.
python vs croc
Breakdown of macromolecules by enzymes- made in the gut, salivary glands and pancreas into molecules small enough to be absorbed through the alimentary lining.
Amylases- Break down carbs
Proteases- Break down protein
Lipases- Break down lipids
Most occurs in the small intestine.
Food at it’s smallest is then absorbed by the cells of the intestine and passed along to the blood stream.
Caecum: a pouch extension at the junction of the small & large colon which in herbivores contains cellulose digesting bacteria.
Herbivorus mammals with higher fibre diets may have larger caecums to maximise the opportunity for cellulose digestion by bacteria.
Most (not all) birds have :
No specialised transporting fluid.
Instead interstitial fluid is moves freely around the body before eventually returning to the heart.
Very low blood pressure and long circuit times.
2 Chambered Heart
3 Chambered Heart
4 Chambered Heart
Features of effective transport systems
THE CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM = heart and blood vessels
Fragments of cells, important in preventing blood loss and promoting blood clotting.
The Atria (singular: atrium):
One way valves ensure blood flows in one direction.
The heart is very coordinated first the atria contract forcing the blood into the ventricles then the ventricles contract.
Left Atria receives oxygenated blood from lungs
Right Atria receives deoxygenated blood from body
Left Ventricle pumps out aorta to the body
Right Ventricle pumps deoxygenated blood to lungs
Characteristics of Respiratory Surfaces
What organs gets rid of the above 2 waste products?
The kidneys are the organs that removes nitrogenous waste from the body.