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classification of living things chapter 18

Classification of Living ThingsChapter 18

http://analyzer.depaul.edu/astrobiology/kingdoms.jpg

slide2

_______________ = branch of biology that names and groups organisms according to their ____________________ (Shape and structure)Does it have a backbone? Feathers? Gills? Flippers?_____________ (Evolutionary history)How has organism changed in fossil record? What other organisms is it related to?

slide3

_______________ = branch of biology that names and groups organisms according to their _________________________ (Shape and structure)Does it have a backbone? Feathers? Gills? Flippers?__________________________ (Evolutionary history)How has organism changed in fossil record? What other organisms is it related to?

slide4
The first person to group or classify organisms was the Greek teacher & philosopher _______________more than 2000 years ago.

(300 B.C.)

Image from: http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/history/aristotle.html

aristotle s system
Aristotle’s system

By: Riedell

_____________

_____________

Based on size of stem

Based on where they lived

problems
Problems?

1. Not all organisms fit into Aristotle’s 2 groups (plants or animals)

Ex: Bacteria Fungi

Images from: http://www.leighday.co.uk/upload/public/docImages/6/Listeria%20bacteria.jpg

http://danny.oz.au/travel/iceland/p/3571-fungi.jpg

problems1
Problems?

2. Common names can be misleading

Ex: A jelly fish isn’t a fish,

but a seahorse is!

Image from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jellyfish

Sea cucumber sounds like a plant but… it’s an animal!

Image from: http://www.alaska.net/~scubaguy/images/seacucumber.jpg

problems2
Problems?

3. Common names vary from place to place

Ex: puma, catamount, mountain lion, cougar are all names for same animal

Image from: http://www4.d25.k12.id.us/ihil/images/Cougar.jpg

problems3
Problems?

4. Same organisms have different names in different countries.

Chipmunk

Streifenhornchen (German)

Tamia (Italian)

Ardilla listada (Spanish)

Image from: http://www.entm.purdue.edu/wildlife/chipmunk_pictures.htm

solution
Solution?

Some early scientists devised scientific names using long descriptions in LATIN.

RED OAK

Quercus foliis obtuse-sinuatis setaceo-mucronatis

slide11
RED OAK

Quercus foliis obtuse-sinuatis setaceo-mucronatis

“oak with leaves with deep blunt lobes bearing hairlike bristles”

PROBLEMS?

Names too hard and long to remember!

Names don’t show relationships between different animals

carolus linnaeus comes to the rescue
Carolus Linnaeus comes to the rescue!

Devised a new classification system based on _________________

(Organism’s form and structure)

(1707-1778)

Image from: http://www.medusozoa.com/images/linnaeus.jpg

linnaeus s system
Linnaeus’s System

Grouped in a _____________

of 7 different levels

Each organism has a two part LATIN __________________

slide15

Kids

Prefer

Cheese

Over

Fried

Green

Spinach

  • Kingdom
    • Phylum
      • Class
        • Order
          • Family
          • Genus
          • Species
slide16

Kingdom

    • Phylum
    • Class
    • Order
          • Family
          • Genus Species

Animalia

Chordata

Mammalia

Carnivora

Felidae

Panthera

leo

http://www.vetmed.wisc.edu/dms/fapm/personnel/tom_b/2004-lion.jpg

binomial nomenclature 2 name naming system
BINOMIAL NOMENCLATURE(2 name naming system)
  • 1st name = _______________
    • Always capitalized
  • 2nd name = _________________
    • Always lower case
  • Both names are ______________ or written in ____________.
binomial nomenclature
Binomial Nomenclature

Vampire batDesmodus rotundus

Image from: http://212.84.179.117/i/Vampire%20Bat.jpg

Eastern chipmunk

Tamias striatus

Image from: http://www.entm.purdue.edu/wildlife/chipmunk_pictures.htm

binomial nomenclature1
Binomial nomenclature

Humans

Homo sapiens

Homo sapiens

Image from: http://www.earlylearning.ubc.ca/images/photo_baby.jpg

so what do we use now
So what do we use now?

MODERN TAXONOMY

Still use Linnaeus’s system:

but we have added more _____________

Remember: Linnaeus only had 2.

modern taxonomy
Modern Taxonomy

Kidspiration by Riedell

modern taxonomy1
MODERN TAXONOMY

organizes

living things

in the context of

_________________

http://animals.timduru.org/dirlist/dino/FlyingDinosaurus-Pterodon-fossil.jpg

modern taxonomy2
MODERN TAXONOMY
  • Scientists use different kinds of info
  • to classify organisms:
  • ______________________
  • ______________________
  • ______________________
  • ______________________
  • ______________________
1 fossil record
1. FOSSIL RECORD

We can trace some changes over time through the fossil record.

Evolutionary history = _____________

http://www.familyeducation.com/printables/display/0,2361,1650,00.gif

2 morphology
2. MORPHOLOGY

Shape and Function

Image from: http://www.angelfire.com/ab7/evolution12/evolutionclues.html

morphology
MORPHOLOGY

_________________ characteristics:

same embryological origin (may have similar structure and function)

EX: __________________________

Homologous characteristics suggest a

_____________________.

slide28

HOMOLOGOUS STRUCTURES

Image from: http://www.angelfire.com/ab7/evolution12/evolutionclues.html

Bat wing

and human arm

develop from same embryonic structures

morphology1
MORPHOLOGY

______________ characteristics:may have similar structure & function but different embryological origin

EX: _______________________

ANALOGOUS

ANALOGOUS characteristics evolved separately.Organisms ________________________.

slide30

ANALOGOUSSTRUCTURES

Bird wing and

butterfly wing

have evolved with similar function

BUT

different structure

inside.

http://uk.dk.com/static/cs/uk/11/clipart/bird/image_bird003.html

Insects and birds NOT closely related!

http://www.naturenorth.com/butterfly/images/05a%20tiger%20wing.jpg

slide31

Even differences show relatedness

amnion /am·ni·on/ (am´ne-on) bag of waters; the extraembryonic membrane of birds, reptiles, and mammals, which lines the chorion and contains the fetus and the amniotic fluid

http://media-2.web.britannica.com/eb-media/27/117227-050-E1C9ABEE.jpg

http://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/amnions

3 embryology
3. EMBRYOLOGY

Animals whose embryos develop in a similar pattern may be related

Image from: http://calspace.ucsd.edu/virtualmuseum/litu/03_3.shtml

4 chromosomes
4. CHROMOSOMES

Similar karyotypes suggest closer relationships.

Human: http://www.nationmaster.com/wikimir/images/upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/1/18/300px-Human_karyogram.png

Chimpanzee: Middle School Life Science , published by Kendall/Hunt.

slide34

Human- 46 chromosomes Chimpanzee- 48 chromosomes

Even differences show relatedness

Chimpanzees have 2 smaller chromosome pairs we don’t have

Humans have 1 larger chromosome pair (#2) they don’t have.

Human: http://www.nationmaster.com/wikimir/images/upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/1/18/300px-Human_karyogram.png

Chimpanzee: Middle School Life Science , published by Kendall/Hunt.

slide35

TELOMERES IN MIDDLE

____________________

All chromosomes have special sequences called TELOMERES at their ends to protect the strands during replication.

http://joannenova.com.au/Speaking/Morslids.html

2 telomeres in middle
2. TELOMERES IN MIDDLE

Human chromosome is only human chromosome that has telomere sequences at the ends BUT ALSO IN THE MIDDLE . . . suggesting it was made by joining two other chromosomes together.

http://www.evolutionpages.com/chromosome_2.htm

slide37

EXTRA CENTROMERE

_________________

Chromosome #2 has a second inactive centromere region . . .

suggesting it was made by joining two other chromosomes together.

Which chromosomes?

http://www.evolutionpages.com/chromosome_2.htm

slide38

BANDING PATTERN MATCHES

________________________

If you take the two smaller chromosomes they have that we don’t, and place them end to end, the banding pattern is identical to human chromosome #2

http://www.evolutionpages.com/chromosome_2.htm

5 macromolecules
5. MACROMOLECULES

Compare molecules like _________________ _________________

Organisms with similar sequences are

probably more closely related.

See page 334-335

so what do we use now1
So what do we use now?

_________________-based on multiple kinds of evidence

6 KINGDOMS

Eubacteria

Archaebacteria

Protista

Plantae

Fungi

Animalia

Shows evolutionary relationships based on:

Morphology Fossil records Embryology Chromosomes Macromolecules (DNA & Proteins)

6 kingdom system
6 KINGDOM SYSTEM

These relationships can be shown in a diagram called a

_____________________

Image from: http://sps.k12.ar.us/massengale/images/clip0075.jpg

so what do we use now2
So what do we use now?

OTHER WAYS TO CLASSIFY BESIDES the 6 KINGDOM SYSTEM:

_____________

Shows evolutionary relationships based on:

_____________________________

cladistics
CLADISTICS

Cladistic relationships are shown in a diagram called a_________________

Image from:http://sps.k12.ar.us/massengale/images/clip0075.jpg

3 domain system
3 DOMAIN SYSTEM

So what do we use now?

OTHER WAYS TO CLASSIFY BESIDES the 6 KINGDOM SYSTEM:

Bacteria

Archaea

Eukarya

Eubacteria

Archaebacteria

Protista

Plantae

Fungi

Animalia

Group organisms based on the

kind of ______________ they have