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  1. What is the function of the parts of the EYE?(Baby bio pg 907)What is the function of the parts of the EAR? (Baby bio pg 908)

  2. http://www.iknow.net/player_window.html?url=media/synapses_auto.swf&width=360&height=317http://www.iknow.net/player_window.html?url=media/synapses_auto.swf&width=360&height=317 • http://animations.3d4medical.com/The-internal-structure-of-the-ear-animation_AN2057.html • http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/0072495855/student_view0/chapter19/animation__effect_of_sound_waves_on_cochlear_structures__quiz_2_.html

  3. Great Animations McGraw Hill Animations of almost every chapter • http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/dl/free/0072437316/120060/ravenanimation.html Brain Pop Search by topic you are interested in (use before 5:30 pm) • Username: gators1 • Password: gators1 Biology Interactive Animations http://nhscience.lonestar.edu/biol/bio1int.htm Lab Bench • All 12 labs! Review and Games • http://www.jdenuno.com/APBiology/APBioGames.htm College Board Recommended Websites • http://apcentral.collegeboard.com/apc/members/courses/teachers_corner/19934.html

  4. Schedule for last 3 classes • Tuesday—Lab 6, Lab 7, Lab 8, Lab 9 (FRQ) -Study groups, flashcards, review book, animations • Thursday—Lab 10, Lab 11, Lab 12 (FRQ) -Study groups, flashcards, review book, animations • Friday---Study groups, flashcards, review book, animations Meet at 7:40 am on Monday, May 14th Email breakfast requests

  5. Ch. 48 Nervous Systems

  6. afferent Nervous system interneurons • PNS, CNS efferent Effector cells • INPUT: Sensory Neurons (receptors) • INTEGRATION: CNS(brain & spinal cord) Interneurons • OUTPUT: Motor Neurons (effectors)

  7. The Reflex Arc

  8. The Neuron • Dendrites receivethe signal, axon delivers the signal away to another neuron or to the CNS • Myelin sheaths (white matter) insulate the axon and are made by Schwanns cells or oligodendrocytes. • Schwanns and Oligodendrocytes are both types of supporting cells called glia. • What is saltatory conduction? P.970 • What is a Node of Ranvier? • What is a synapse?

  9. Anatomy of a Neuron Makes myelin - PNS >Speed of Transmission: Larger axons & Myelin sheath (Saltatory conduction)

  10. Animation http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/olcweb/cgi/pluginpop.cgi?it=swf::535::535::/sites/dl/free/0072437316/120107/bio_d.swf::Action Potential Propagation in an Unmyelinated Axon

  11. Outside is always zero Less (+) inside = “-” inside and “+” outside -70 mV is the resting membrane potential

  12. What makes a signal travel down the axon ?

  13. Na+ into the cell Action Potential(“all or none” nerve impulse) K+ out of the cell EPSP Membrane potential (mV)-70 -50 0 +35 Threshold Potential reached: -50 Na/K pump restores resting state restored (-70) Hyperpolarization from ___ ions 0 1 2 3 4 Time (milliseconds)

  14. Hyperpolarization:more negative insideby K+ moving out—does not cause an action potential Depolarization: inside gains more positive charge by Na+ rushing in INHIBITORY(-) EXCITATORY (+) -70 What is meant by all–or–none action potential?

  15. The steps of an action potential…

  16. Resting State Na+ gates closed, K+ gate closedNa/K pump is maintaining –70mV

  17. Depolarizing Phase Na+ gate OPENS, (fast gate)K+ channels are still closed (slow gate) Na+ rushes into the neuron (+ + + +)

  18. RE-polarizing Phase Na+ inactivation gate closes, K+ slow gate OPENS K+ rushes out of the neuron

  19. Undershoot Na+ channels closed, K+ channels still OPEN K+ still rushes out of the neuron (Hyperpolarizing the inside - - - - - -)

  20. Animation • http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/0072495855/student_view0/chapter14/animation__the_nerve_impulse.html

  21. Direction of transmission? Slow closing of the K+ channels prevents “back-flow” One way flow of Electricity!

  22. Chemical synapses • TERMS: • Vesicles • synaptic cleft • neurotrans-mitters • (Ca2+) • receptor • ion channel • Pre/post synaptic membrane • Enzymes to degrade the neurotrans-mitters

  23. Summation of IPSP & EPSPInhibitory(-) & Excitatory(+) Post-Synaptic Potential Temporal and Spatial Summation

  24. PNS

  25. AUTONOMIC • Sym-pathetic • Stress (like a “fight or flight” response) • Para-sympa-thetic • Peace (relaxed, normal functions)

  26. The real thing . . . . . . . . Cerebrum Thalamus Hypothalamus Cerebellum Brain stem: medulla oblongata, pons, midbrain

  27. Cerebrum

  28. Right versus left Cerebrum

  29. Brain Stem: Medulla Oblongata & Pons = (autonomic, homeostatic, data conduction) Midbrain = (receives and integrates sensory information) Cerebellum: Automatic coordination of movements and balance Thalamus:integration of stimuli coming to the brain Hypothalamus: important homeostatic regulation (temperature, hunger, thirst) & hormones Cerebrum: memory, learning , emotions, motor movements, sensory cortex areas BRAIN STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONS

  30. Always use your brain! • http://health.howstuffworks.com/human-body/systems/nervous-system/adam-200008.htm

  31. Data for DaphniaCopy and graph. Interpret graph

  32. Discussion Questions • Why does temperature affect heart rate in ectothermic organisms? • Discuss what results you might obtain if you repeated this experiment using an endothermic organism • Why does smoking cause a rise in blood pressure? • Explain why blood pressure and heart rate differ when measured in reclining position and in a standing position.

  33. http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/0072495855/student_view0/chapter25/animation__gas_exchange_during_respiration.htmlhttp://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/0072495855/student_view0/chapter25/animation__gas_exchange_during_respiration.html • Describe how the structure of alveoli relates to its function?

  34. Structure and function in snails

  35. Open books to pgs 899 and 906

  36. AP Bio Exam—Mon, May 14th at 8 am

  37. Animal Development • Chapter 47 ~ Animal Development

  38. Embryonic development/fertilization • Preformation~ until 18th century; miniature infant in sperm or egg • At fertilization/conception: • Acrosomal reaction~ hydrolytic enzyme action on egg jelly coat…. • Fast block to polyspermy~ membrane depolarization prevents multiple fertilizations…. • Cortical reaction~ release of calcium causes hardening of egg outer layer and creates a... • Slow block to polyspermy and... • Egg activation~ increases metabolic activity; protein synthesis

  39. The Fertilized Egg & Cleavage • Blastomeres~ resultant cells of cleavage/mitosis • Yolk~ nutrients stored in the egg • Vegetal pole~ side of egg with high yolk concentration • Animal pole ~ side of egg with low yolk concentration • Morula~solid ball of cells • Blastocoel~fluid-filled cavity in morula • Blastula~hollow ball stage of development

  40. Gastrulation • Gastrula~ 2 layered, cup-shaped embryonic stage • 3 Embryonic germ layers: • Ectoderm~ outer layer; epidermis; nervous system, etc. • Endoderm~ inner layer; digestive tract and associated organs; respiratory, etc. • Mesoderm~skeletal; muscular; excretory, etc. • Invagination~ gastrula buckling process to create the... • Archenteron~ primitive gut • Blastopore~ open end of archenteron

  41. Organogenesis: organ formation • Blastodisc~ cap of cells on top of yolk • Primitive streak~ invagination of blastodisc • Neural tube~ beginning of spinal cord • Somites~ vertebrae and skeletal muscles • Neural crest~ bones and muscles of skull

  42. Amniote embryos • Extraembryonic membranes:•yolk sac(support; circulatory function)•amnion(fluid-filled sac; protection)•chorion(placenta formation)•allantois(nitrogenous waste)

  43. Child birth • http://www.evtv1.com/player.aspx?itemnum=8157

  44. KNOW THIS!

  45. Urchin Gastrulation ( proto or deutero-stome ? ) Triploblastic (know 3 layers/colors) Archenteron, blastocoel

  46. Nerve cord? Notochord? Primitive streak What structure(s) does each layer give rise to? Organogenesis (differentiation) happens very early