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What is the function of the parts of the EYE?(Baby bio pg 907)What is the function of the parts of the EAR? (Baby bio pg 908)
http://www.iknow.net/player_window.html?url=media/synapses_auto.swf&width=360&height=317http://www.iknow.net/player_window.html?url=media/synapses_auto.swf&width=360&height=317 • http://animations.3d4medical.com/The-internal-structure-of-the-ear-animation_AN2057.html • http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/0072495855/student_view0/chapter19/animation__effect_of_sound_waves_on_cochlear_structures__quiz_2_.html
Great Animations McGraw Hill Animations of almost every chapter • http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/dl/free/0072437316/120060/ravenanimation.html Brain Pop Search by topic you are interested in (use before 5:30 pm) • Username: gators1 • Password: gators1 Biology Interactive Animations http://nhscience.lonestar.edu/biol/bio1int.htm Lab Bench • All 12 labs! Review and Games • http://www.jdenuno.com/APBiology/APBioGames.htm College Board Recommended Websites • http://apcentral.collegeboard.com/apc/members/courses/teachers_corner/19934.html
Schedule for last 3 classes • Tuesday—Lab 6, Lab 7, Lab 8, Lab 9 (FRQ) -Study groups, flashcards, review book, animations • Thursday—Lab 10, Lab 11, Lab 12 (FRQ) -Study groups, flashcards, review book, animations • Friday---Study groups, flashcards, review book, animations Meet at 7:40 am on Monday, May 14th Email breakfast requests
Ch. 48 Nervous Systems
afferent Nervous system interneurons • PNS, CNS efferent Effector cells • INPUT: Sensory Neurons (receptors) • INTEGRATION: CNS(brain & spinal cord) Interneurons • OUTPUT: Motor Neurons (effectors)
The Neuron • Dendrites receivethe signal, axon delivers the signal away to another neuron or to the CNS • Myelin sheaths (white matter) insulate the axon and are made by Schwanns cells or oligodendrocytes. • Schwanns and Oligodendrocytes are both types of supporting cells called glia. • What is saltatory conduction? P.970 • What is a Node of Ranvier? • What is a synapse?
Anatomy of a Neuron Makes myelin - PNS >Speed of Transmission: Larger axons & Myelin sheath (Saltatory conduction)
Animation http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/olcweb/cgi/pluginpop.cgi?it=swf::535::535::/sites/dl/free/0072437316/120107/bio_d.swf::Action Potential Propagation in an Unmyelinated Axon
Outside is always zero Less (+) inside = “-” inside and “+” outside -70 mV is the resting membrane potential
Na+ into the cell Action Potential(“all or none” nerve impulse) K+ out of the cell EPSP Membrane potential (mV)-70 -50 0 +35 Threshold Potential reached: -50 Na/K pump restores resting state restored (-70) Hyperpolarization from ___ ions 0 1 2 3 4 Time (milliseconds)
Hyperpolarization:more negative insideby K+ moving out—does not cause an action potential Depolarization: inside gains more positive charge by Na+ rushing in INHIBITORY(-) EXCITATORY (+) -70 What is meant by all–or–none action potential?
Resting State Na+ gates closed, K+ gate closedNa/K pump is maintaining –70mV
Depolarizing Phase Na+ gate OPENS, (fast gate)K+ channels are still closed (slow gate) Na+ rushes into the neuron (+ + + +)
RE-polarizing Phase Na+ inactivation gate closes, K+ slow gate OPENS K+ rushes out of the neuron
Undershoot Na+ channels closed, K+ channels still OPEN K+ still rushes out of the neuron (Hyperpolarizing the inside - - - - - -)
Animation • http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/0072495855/student_view0/chapter14/animation__the_nerve_impulse.html
Direction of transmission? Slow closing of the K+ channels prevents “back-flow” One way flow of Electricity!
Chemical synapses • TERMS: • Vesicles • synaptic cleft • neurotrans-mitters • (Ca2+) • receptor • ion channel • Pre/post synaptic membrane • Enzymes to degrade the neurotrans-mitters
Summation of IPSP & EPSPInhibitory(-) & Excitatory(+) Post-Synaptic Potential Temporal and Spatial Summation
AUTONOMIC • Sym-pathetic • Stress (like a “fight or flight” response) • Para-sympa-thetic • Peace (relaxed, normal functions)
The real thing . . . . . . . . Cerebrum Thalamus Hypothalamus Cerebellum Brain stem: medulla oblongata, pons, midbrain
Brain Stem: Medulla Oblongata & Pons = (autonomic, homeostatic, data conduction) Midbrain = (receives and integrates sensory information) Cerebellum: Automatic coordination of movements and balance Thalamus:integration of stimuli coming to the brain Hypothalamus: important homeostatic regulation (temperature, hunger, thirst) & hormones Cerebrum: memory, learning , emotions, motor movements, sensory cortex areas BRAIN STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONS
Always use your brain! • http://health.howstuffworks.com/human-body/systems/nervous-system/adam-200008.htm
Discussion Questions • Why does temperature affect heart rate in ectothermic organisms? • Discuss what results you might obtain if you repeated this experiment using an endothermic organism • Why does smoking cause a rise in blood pressure? • Explain why blood pressure and heart rate differ when measured in reclining position and in a standing position.
http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/0072495855/student_view0/chapter25/animation__gas_exchange_during_respiration.htmlhttp://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/0072495855/student_view0/chapter25/animation__gas_exchange_during_respiration.html • Describe how the structure of alveoli relates to its function?
Animal Development • Chapter 47 ~ Animal Development
Embryonic development/fertilization • Preformation~ until 18th century; miniature infant in sperm or egg • At fertilization/conception: • Acrosomal reaction~ hydrolytic enzyme action on egg jelly coat…. • Fast block to polyspermy~ membrane depolarization prevents multiple fertilizations…. • Cortical reaction~ release of calcium causes hardening of egg outer layer and creates a... • Slow block to polyspermy and... • Egg activation~ increases metabolic activity; protein synthesis
The Fertilized Egg & Cleavage • Blastomeres~ resultant cells of cleavage/mitosis • Yolk~ nutrients stored in the egg • Vegetal pole~ side of egg with high yolk concentration • Animal pole ~ side of egg with low yolk concentration • Morula~solid ball of cells • Blastocoel~fluid-filled cavity in morula • Blastula~hollow ball stage of development
Gastrulation • Gastrula~ 2 layered, cup-shaped embryonic stage • 3 Embryonic germ layers: • Ectoderm~ outer layer; epidermis; nervous system, etc. • Endoderm~ inner layer; digestive tract and associated organs; respiratory, etc. • Mesoderm~skeletal; muscular; excretory, etc. • Invagination~ gastrula buckling process to create the... • Archenteron~ primitive gut • Blastopore~ open end of archenteron
Organogenesis: organ formation • Blastodisc~ cap of cells on top of yolk • Primitive streak~ invagination of blastodisc • Neural tube~ beginning of spinal cord • Somites~ vertebrae and skeletal muscles • Neural crest~ bones and muscles of skull
Amniote embryos • Extraembryonic membranes:•yolk sac(support; circulatory function)•amnion(fluid-filled sac; protection)•chorion(placenta formation)•allantois(nitrogenous waste)
Child birth • http://www.evtv1.com/player.aspx?itemnum=8157
Urchin Gastrulation ( proto or deutero-stome ? ) Triploblastic (know 3 layers/colors) Archenteron, blastocoel
Nerve cord? Notochord? Primitive streak What structure(s) does each layer give rise to? Organogenesis (differentiation) happens very early