"Not within a thousand years would men ever fly!" -Wilbur Wright, 1902. WRIGHT BROTHERS. By Jack Burton. 10 th Grade American History.
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"Not within a thousand years would men ever fly!" -Wilbur Wright, 1902 WRIGHT BROTHERS By Jack Burton
10th Grade American History • Students should be aware of local connections in regard to famous historical achievements with emphasis on the Wright Brothers and their place in local, national and international history.
OBJECTIVES • To expose students to the importance of this region within a scenario that will hold their attention and serve as a possible source of pride, and perhaps a motivating factor in their lives • To introduce the Wright Brothers, their local ties, and their prominence in history along with other early pioneers of flight. • To expose the students to some of the aircraft that are prominent in historical events, and in doing so, perhaps spur some interest in those events.
The Early Days of Flight • The Pioneers • Lilienthal • Santos-Dumont • Phillips
Otto Lilienthal“World’s First True Aviator” • One of the key figures in the history of flight. • His results and methods were an inspiration to many other pioneers, particularly the Wright Brothers. • The first to realize that the only way to gain essential experience in design and control was to first learn how to glide, and used to launch himself from an artificial hill near Berlin or from the Rhinower Hills.
Alberto Santos-Dumont • Wealthy young Brazilian used Paris as a stage for his aeronautical exploits with airships and planes. • 1906 Flight • He was internationally acclaimed as the first man to have achieved powered flight. • However as the earlier efforts of the Wright Brothers became generally accepted his exploits were recognized as having been only the first powered flight in Europe.
Horatio Phillips • Wind Tunnel • Flying Venetian Blinds • The first model ‘flyer’ of 1893 had 40 narrow wings, and just lifted when driven round a circular track at 40mph by a steam engine .
The multiplane model of 1902 had 120 wings and was driven by a powerful petrol engine. It was capable of lifting 385 lbs in tethered flight.
The 1904 man-carrier had 20 wings and managed a short ‘hop’ of about 50ft.
The second man-carrier of 1907 had four rows, each with 50 wings, and an 8ft propeller. Phillips made an uncontrolled, powered hop of 500ft- the first in England.
Octave Chanute • Octave Chanute was an American civil engineer. • Chanute corresponded with many of the important figures in aviation, including Otto Lilienthal in Germany and the Wright brothers in the United States. In 1896, he began experimenting with gliders in a camp on the shores of Lake Michigan near Chicago. He built, along with Augustus Herring, a glider that was the most advanced of its time and made about 2,000 gliding flights without an accident. The data he collected would prove useful to the Wright brothers when they were developing their early glider designs. • Chanute freely shared his knowledge about aviation with anyone who was interested and expected others to do the same. This led to some friction with the Wright brothers, who wanted to protect their invention through patents. • He died on November 2, 1910.
Wright Brothers • Brief Background • Dayton Connection • Huffman Prairie • Bike Shop • Scientific Methods • Wind Tunnel • Roll, Pitch, and Yaw • Wing warping, Elevator, Rudder
Wind Tunnel Test • A wind tunnel is a device used to determine the aerodynamic forces (lift and drag) on an object (such as a wing). • Wind tunnel testing was a key ingredient in the Wright's successful development of the 1903 Flyer.
On September 20, 1904- Orville flew a complete circuit of the Prairie. This was the first complete circle in an airplane. Huffman Prairie
Wrights-continued • 1903 • Kittyhawk • First flight • 1904 and beyond In this crash in 1908 Orville was seriously injured and Lt. Thomas Selfridge was killed. He was the first passenger killed in an airplane.
Wilbur and Orville Wright made the first manned, heavier than air, powered flight on December 17, 1903.
web sites • http://firstflight.open.ac.uk/ • First Flight • http://www.wam.umd.edu/~stwright/WrBr/taleplane.html • Wright Brothers History • http://www.centennialofflight.gov/1903.htm • Centennial of Flight • http://www.first-to-fly.com/History/hstrywng.htm • First to Fly • http://www.stemnet.nf.ca/CITE/wright.htm • Gander Academy
activity #1 • 1. go to any of the web sites listed and select one individual (other than a Wright) related to early flight. Be prepared to give a short talk (5 minutes) on the individual. • Materials needed: computer access, paper, pencils or pen
activity #2 • 2. On a poster board, draw a picture, create a montage, or a picture story of something related to early aviation. • Materials needed: poster board, colored pencils, scissors, pens, photographs.
activity #3 • 3. In the groups of three or four, create a skit based on the Wright brothers life. the skit should last from 5-10 minutes. • Materials needed: Whatever you can do to make the skit appear authentic.
activity #4 • 4. Prepare a list of 5 questions from the lecture, web, or text. The questions will be used in a game of “Who Wants an “A” • Materials needed: Text, lecture notes, web access, common sense.
activity #5 • 5. Build a model. You may use whatever materials you wish to make an early flight model. Several types of instructions are located on the web sights. • Materials needed: Wood, paper, glue, or whatever your model calls for.