slide1
Download
Skip this Video
Download Presentation
The Wright Brothers

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 42

The Wright Brothers - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 201 Views
  • Uploaded on

The Wright Brothers. Chapter Overview. The Wright Brothers Developing Aircraft. Warm Up Questions CPS Questions (1-2). Courtesy of Comstock Images. How the Wright Brothers Succeeded in the First Flight. All pilots face three challenges: Get up in the air Stay up Control the craft

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'The Wright Brothers' - kimi


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
chapter overview
Chapter Overview
  • The Wright Brothers
  • Developing Aircraft

Chapter 2, Lesson 1

warm up questions cps questions 1 2
Warm Up QuestionsCPS Questions(1-2)

Chapter 2, Lesson 1

Courtesy of Comstock Images

how the wright brothers succeeded in the first flight
How the Wright Brothers Succeeded in the First Flight
  • All pilots face three challenges:
    • Get up in the air
    • Stay up
    • Control the craft
  • Pilots experimented in flight with:
    • Manned and powered, full-size aircraft
    • Models
    • Full-size gliders

Chapter 2, Lesson 1

learning check 1 cps questions 3 4
Learning Check #1CPS Questions(3-4)

Chapter 2, Lesson 1

Courtesy of Comstock Images

how the wright brothers succeeded in the first flight1
How the Wright Brothers Succeeded in the First Flight
  • The Wrights chose a glider as their starting point
    • They could focus first on balancing and controlling the aircraft
    • Power (an engine) could come later
    • They applied what they learned at each step to make the next one go more smoothly

Chapter 2, Lesson 1

step one unmanned box kite
Step One: Unmanned Box Kite
  • The Wrights’ kite had
    • A five-foot wingspan and biplane structure
    • Struts that connected the upper and lower wings
    • Bracing strung diagonally between the struts

Chapter 2, Lesson 1

Courtesy of the Air Force Historical Research Agency

step one unmanned box kite1
Step One: Unmanned Box Kite
  • They discovered that they didn’t need to tilt an entire wing to turn the craft:
    • Needed to twist only the ends of the wings
    • They called this process “wing warping”
  • In the summer of 1899, Wilbur Wright successfully tested the kite in a field

Chapter 2, Lesson 1

step two manned gilders
Step Two: Manned Gilders
  • Between 1900 and 1902, the brothers built three gliders
  • Before putting a man aboard, they flew each glider like a kite
  • They wanted to test it for control and lift
  • Only after doing this would they put a man aboard

Chapter 2, Lesson 1

wright gliders
Wright Gliders
  • The early glider experiments taught the brothers three important things:
    • How to control climb and descent
    • The best design for the shape of the wing
    • How large the wing area had to be to sustain lift

Chapter 2, Lesson 1

Courtesy of Wright State University

the first glider 1900
The First Glider (1900)
  • In their experiments in 1900, the Wrights placed an elevator at the front of the glider
  • Earlier designers mounted elevators behind the wings
  • But the Wrights found it easier to control climb and descent when the elevator was placed forward

Chapter 2, Lesson 1

the first glider
The First Glider
  • They also focused on airfoil—a wing’s profile
    • Zeroed in on curve of the wing
    • Tried to design a wing that shifted the center of pressure toward the front edge of the wing
    • Placed the highest point of the wing’s arc closer to the outer edge than to the center—to create greater stability and control

Chapter 2, Lesson 1

the first glider1
The First Glider
  • The brothers test-flew their glider at Kill Devil Hills in 1900
  • It didn’t crash, but clearly improvements were necessary
  • The Wrights headed back to Ohio to build the next version

Chapter 2, Lesson 1

the second glider 1901
The Second Glider (1901)
  • The first glider didn’t have nearly enough lift
  • So for their 1901 glider, the brothers increased the wing area to 290 square feet
  • This glider was also a big disappointment
  • The brothers couldn’t control it well when they tested it at Kill Devil Hills
  • It flew less than 300 feet—time to return to Dayton!

Chapter 2, Lesson 1

the wind tunnel
The Wind Tunnel
  • The brothers built a wind tunnel in their bicycle shop to test model-size wings
    • Made them of sheet steel
    • Cut more than 200 model wings of different shapes

Chapter 2, Lesson 1

Courtesy of Wright State University

learning check 2 cps questions 5 6
Learning Check #2CPS Questions(5-6)

Chapter 1, Lesson 1

Courtesy of Comstock Images

the third glider 1902
The Third Glider (1902)
  • This glider had two fixed, vertical rudders behind the wings
  • Test flights showed that this resulted in erratic behavior during turns
  • So the Wrights tried a single, movable, vertical rudder
  • This improved control

Chapter 2, Lesson 1

the third glider
The Third Glider
  • The third glider had:
    • Forward elevator
    • Elliptical shape
    • Longer, skinnier wings
    • Wing area of 305 feet
    • Low angle of attack
  • This design was a success
  • The brothers took to the air in the North Carolina dunes more than 700 times in the fall of 1902

Chapter 2, Lesson 1

Courtesy of NASA

step three a manned powered aircraft
The 1903 Engine viewed from the sideStep Three: A Manned, Powered Aircraft
  • The brothers set out to fit their plane with an engine
    • They tried to buy one ready made
    • But no one met their needs or price
  • So they had their bicycle mechanic, Charles E. Taylor, build them a four-cylinder, 12-horsepower engine

Chapter 2, Lesson 1

Courtesy of the Library of Congress

delays
Delays
  • In September 1903 they returned to Kitty Hawk and Kill Devil Hills
  • First they had to build a trolley track to give their powered aircraft a running start
  • Bad weather also caused delays
  • The brothers tossed a coin, and Wilbur won
  • However, on the first test flight of the Wright Flyer, he crashed it
  • It took three days to repair the damaged craft

Chapter 2, Lesson 1

first flight
First Flight!
  • On 17 December, Orville took the controls
  • The Flyer rose into the air and stayed aloft for 12 seconds and traveled 120 feet
  • Orville had made the first controlled, sustained, heavier-than-air human flight with a powered aircraft
  • The brothers took turns piloting the Flyer for three more flights
  • The fourth and final launch lasted 59 seconds, and the craft traveled 852 feet

Chapter 2, Lesson 1

anatomy of the wright flyer
Anatomy of the Wright Flyer
  • Equipped with an engine and propellers
  • Biplane with wingspan of 40 feet, four inches, and a wing area of 510 square feet
  • Wings had spars and ribs (covered in muslin)
  • Struts and bracing between top and bottom wings
  • Plane also had a front elevator
  • Rudder at the rear (covered in muslin)
  • Skids rather than wheels

Chapter 2, Lesson 1

anatomy of the wright flyer1
Anatomy of the Wright Flyer

Chapter 2, Lesson 1

Courtesy of Wright State University

how the flyer worked
How the Flyer Worked
  • The brothers controlled their craft with:
    • the forward elevator
    • the use of wing warping
    • and a single, movable rear rudder
  • Surprisingly, the pilot did not sit upright
  • The pilot lay on his stomach in a padded cradle on the lower wing

Chapter 2, Lesson 1

Courtesy of Comstock Images

how the flyer worked1
How the Flyer Worked
  • To the pilot’s left was a lever that he used to control the up-and-down movement of the elevator
  • By moving his hips, he pulled on the cables connected to the wings and rudder (directing the plane left or right)
    • With the new, flexible rudder, the plane finally turned in the intended direction
    • The cables attached to the wings twisted one wing down while forcing the other wing up

Chapter 2, Lesson 1

principles of airplane flight
Orville and Wilbur assembling the 1903 Flyer (detail)Principles of Airplane Flight
  • To get the Wright Flyer off the ground, the brothers had to solve the principles of flight:
    • Lift
    • Drag
    • Thrust
    • Angle of attack
    • Center of pressure
    • Airfoil
    • Relative wind

Chapter 2, Lesson 1

Courtesy of “Wright State University

principles of airplane flight1
Principles of Airplane Flight
  • An engine and propellers gave Wilbur and Orville the ability to use not only lift but also thrust to propel their plane
    • Vertically mounted propellers could provide the airflow for thrust
    • They needed 90 pounds of thrust to propel the Wright Flyer
    • Their 12-horsepower engine and the large propellers proved equal to the task

Chapter 2, Lesson 1

wright brothers involvement with the us army
Wright Brothers’ Involvement With the US Army
  • The Wright brothers continued refining their airplane
  • In January 1905, they had contacted their representative in Congress (R. M. Nevin) and tried to interest the US government in buying their airplane
  • Their offer was turned down

Chapter 2, Lesson 1

wright brothers involvement with the us army1
Wright Brothers’ Involvement With the US Army
  • The British and French governments were interested in buying the Flyer
  • But the brothers wanted the US government to have the first crack at owning a Wright Flyer
  • On 22 May 1906 they received a government patent for their invention

Chapter 2, Lesson 1

the wright brothers patent
The Wright Brothers’ Patent

Chapter 2, Lesson 1

Courtesy of the U.S. Air Force

bids for a government plane
Bids for a Government Plane
  • On 23 December 1907, Gen James Allen sent out a request for bids to build a plane for the government
  • The Wright Flyer met the bid requirements
  • Orville Wright signed a contract on 10 February 1908 selling the Flyer to the US government

Chapter 2, Lesson 1

ways the wright brothers contributed to army aviation
Ways the Wright Brothers Contributed to Army Aviation
  • Orville spent much of 1908 and 1909 improving the Flyer
  • He made more test flights and took up military passengers
  • One such flight tragically ended in a crash that seriously injured Orville and killed 1st Lt Thomas Selfridge—the first US military aviation casualty

Chapter 2, Lesson 1

ways the wright brothers contributed to army aviation1
Ways the Wright BrothersContributed to Army Aviation
  • The brothers switched roles in mid-1909
  • Wilbur trained two pilots for the Army—1st Lt Frank P. Lahm and 2d Lt Fredric E. Humphreys
  • A third pilot, 1st Lt Benjamin Foulois, got instruction late that month
  • Foulois went on to achieve the rank of major general and was also chief of the Army Air Corps

Chapter 2, Lesson 1

army airplanes
Army Airplanes
  • It took a while for the Army to decide how to use airplanes during war
  • At first, the Army thought that airplanes would be useful only for aerial reconnaissance
  • World War I brought about a change in strategy
  • But before that could happen, airplanes needed improvements to make them faster, sturdier, and more reliable

Chapter 2, Lesson 1

learning check 3 cps questions 7 8
Learning Check #3CPS Questions(7-8)

Chapter 2, Lesson 1

Courtesy of Comstock Images

review
Review
  • The Wrights choose a glider as their starting point
  • They began in July 1899 with an unmanned box kite
  • Between 1900 and 1902, the brothers built three gliders—first flying them like a kite, then putting a man aboard

Chapter 2, Lesson 1

review1
Review
  • The early glider experiments taught the brothers three important things:
    • How to control climb and descent
    • The best design for the shape of the wing
    • How large the wing area had to be to sustain lift
  • Once the Wrights had resolved questions about control and lift, they set out to fit their plane with an engine

Chapter 2, Lesson 1

review2
Review
  • On 17 December 1903 Orville made the first controlled, sustained, heavier-than-air human flight with a powered aircraft
  • The brothers controlled their craft through three main means:
    • The forward elevator
    • The use of wing warping
    • A single, movable rear rudder

Chapter 2, Lesson 1

review3
Review
  • On 22 May 1906 the brothers received a government patent for their invention
  • On 10 February 1908 they sold the Wright Flyer to the US government
  • It took a while for the Army to decide how to use airplanes during war
  • Airplanes needed improvements to make them faster, sturdier, and more reliable

Chapter 2, Lesson 1

review questions cps questions 9 10
Review QuestionsCPS Questions(9-10)

Chapter 2, Lesson 1

Courtesy of Comstock Images

summary
Summary
  • How the Wright brothers succeeded in the first flight
  • The anatomy of the Wright Flyer
  • The principles of airplane flight
  • The history of the Wright brothers’ involvement with the US Army

Chapter 2, Lesson 1

slide42
Next….
  • Done—the Wright brothers
  • Next—developing aircraft

Chapter 2, Lesson 1

Courtesy of NASA

ad