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The Enlightenment. 18 th Century. Initial Response. List the rights you value. If these rights were taken away, what means would you go to get them back?. Basics of the Enlightenment. Occurred during the 18 th century Took place before the American and French revolutions

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the enlightenment

The Enlightenment

18th Century

initial response
Initial Response

List the rights you value. If these rights were taken away, what means would you go to get them back?

basics of the enlightenment
Basics of the Enlightenment
  • Occurred during the 18th century
  • Took place before the American and French revolutions
  • Middle class movement
  • Led to scientific, political, and social advances
  • Stressed the reason to question previous doctrines
natural rights
Natural Rights
  • Moral or inalienable rights
  • Not contingent upon laws, customs, or beliefs of a particular society
  • Different from legal rights, which are held by legal statutes by some type of legislature
european political thinkers
European Political Thinkers
  • Founders of American government considered their ideas
  • Many of their ideas, words and concepts were used in the formation of our own government and legislature
john locke
John Locke
  • Lived between 1632-1704
  • English philosopher
  • Writings influenced American colonists
  • Wrote the Two Treatises of Government
  • Believed that by nature, people had certain rights and duties
  • Natural rights (liberty (freedom), life and property)
  • People formed government to protect these rights
  • People could change the government if it failed to protect their rights
thomas hobbes
Thomas Hobbes
  • Lived between 1588-1679
  • England
  • He believed people needed to come together under a govt.
  • Without govt., there would be conflict and war
  • Govt. could be a monarchy or strong body
  • Govt. should fight to protect its people, which would help them better serve their families and govt.
  • Wrote Leviathan- idea of social contract
baron de montesquieu
Baron de Montesquieu
  • Lived between 1689-1755
  • French Philosopher
  • Wrote The Spirit of Laws
  • Govt.’s purpose is to bring about freedom/liberty
  • Govt. should be in three branches, each having its own power
  • Citizens would live freely, laws would treat them equally, people would feel safe
jean jacque rousseau
Jean-Jacque Rousseau
  • Swiss/French Philosopher
  • Wrote The Social Contract
  • Believed that people are good, people not God give the govt. the power
  • Individuals give up some of their rights for common good or what is best for the society
  • Citizens contribute to the “general will”, serve everyone
  • If the govt. fails its obligations to the people, they have the right to overthrow the govt.
  • French Philosopher
  • Wrote Candide
  • Freedom of thought was the most important
  • Distrusted democracy
  • Believed only an enlightened monarch could bring change
  • Fought for civil rights-fair trial/freedom of religion
  • King’s best interest to improve the power and wealth of his people and kingdom