Bellringer • The manorial system is best described as_________ • The economic system of feudalism in which the manor was self-sufficient • The courtly behavior of Lords and Ladies • The judicial system of the Middle Ages • The code of conduct for knights • Humanists focus on what subject? • What did Machiavelli write? What did it say?
Sonnet Comparison Shakespeare Petrarch
Centers for trade and shipping Purchase of luxury goods such as silk, spices, ivory, and porcelain Guilds dominated social and civic life of towns Middle class is starting to grow and become powerful Guilds reflected importance of Christianity in towns A) contributed to building cathedrals B) adopted patron saints and sponsored parades in their honor Trade and Commerce: The Foundations of Town Life Moneychanger and his Wife by Quentin Massys
European Renaissance ~1300- ~1700 KingsNew wealth LordsBishops GUILDS Humanism (university) journeyman Art Lower lords apprentice Printing laborers New Monarchs Peasants Parish priests New Technologies Townsmen Kings Clergy Nobles Bourgeoisie lawyers merchants guildsmen Proletariat peasants
Town Life in the Middle Ages Towns were small because society was based on agriculture and most people lived in the countryside Nobles had most of the power a) lords owned the land where most towns were located b) towns needed protection from knights that lords could provide Status determined by birthright Town Life in the Renaissance 1400 1650 500 C.E. SOCIETY POWER STATUS • Towns grew because society began to be based on commerce and more people started to live in cities • Middle class had most of the power a) limited the power of feudal lords by forcing them to grant charters b) gained control of great sums of money by organizing banks • Status determined by wealth and ability
New systems of order • Magna Carta- This document, drawn up by English nobles and reluctantly approved by the King, guaranteed certain basic political rights to English citizens. • No taxation without representation • A jury trial • The protection of the law • The nobles wanted to safeguard their rights and limit the kings powers. • It has served as the basic legal rights both in England and the US. • Parliament- a legislative body that represents the people and votes on matters regarding new laws, taxes, etc. It provides a check on royal power.
"How did the weakening of the Catholic Church allow for people to speak against the church?"
How it began • During the Middle Ages the Catholic Church possessed tremendous political power • It had come to dominate religious life in Northern and Western Europe, however it had not won universal approval • Many people criticized it’s practices - they felt that Christian leaders were too interested in worldly pursuits, such as gaining wealth and political power • The Renaissances emphasis on the secular and the individual challenged the church. Give me examples… • Invention of the printing press helped spread these secular ideas
And then it began • Those dang Germans • It was called Protestant because in 1529 a number of German princes Protested efforts by the Catholic emperor to impose Catholicism to all the territories in Germany. • Began in Germany but soon swept to all of Europe
Martin Luther • Please Note: He is not black, he IS NOT MARTIN LUTHER KING JR • His parents wanted him to be a lawyer… He became a Catholic monk & professor • At the age of 21, Luther was caught in a terrible thunderstorm. Convinced he would die, he cried out, “Saint Anne, help me! I will become a monk.” • Even after entering the monastery, Luther felt fearful, lost, sinful, and rejected by God. • However, by studying the Bible, Luther came to the conclusion that faith alone was the key to salvation.
Martin Luther Cont. • Began to disagree with many aspects of Catholicism • Ex: selling indulgences.what is this? -it was a pardon; it released the sinner from performing the penalty that a priest imposed for sins. • Luther believed people could only have salvation by mercy of God, not by doing good deeds like Catholic church said
The 95 Theses story • In 1517, Luther decided to take a public stand against the actions of Friar Johann Tetzel. • Tetzel was raising money to rebuild St. Peter’s Cathedral in Rome. He did this by selling indulgences. Tetzel gave people the impression that by buying indulgences, they could buy their way into heaven. • October 31, 1517, he posted 95 theses (formal statements) on the door of the castle church in Wittenberg and invited other scholars to debate him. • His actions began the Reformation, a movement for religious reform. It led to the founding of Christian churches that did not accept the pope’s authority.
What did it say? • He contradicted basic Catholic beliefs when he insisted that God's grace cannot be won by good works. • Faith alone, he said, was needed. • He shocked many when he declared that the only head of the Christian Church is Jesus himself, not the Pope. • He also insisted that individual Christians should be their own interpreters of scripture and that Christian practices should come only from the Bible. • Luther translated the Bible into German. The translation enabled many more people to read the Bible without the aid of the clergy.
Reactions to Luther • Pope Leo X -First viewed as a rebellious monk - In 1520 Pope Leo X issued a decree threatening Luther with excommunication if he did not retract his statements. He did not, Pope excommunicated him. • Holy Roman Emperor Charles V -controlled a vast empire including German states. Summoned Luther to the town of Worms in 1521 to stand trial. - Charles issued an imperial order, the Edict of Worms. It declared Luther an outlaw and a heretic. No one was to give Luther any food or shelter. All his books were to be burned
More reactions to Luther • Henry VIII wrote an article against Luther’s views entitled AssertioSeptemSacramentorumor Defense of the Seven Sacraments. • The fervor with which this reply was written can be seen in the strong language used. The book finishes with encouraging readers not to be influenced by heretics like Luther. “Do not listen to the Insults and Detractions against the Vicar of Christ which the Fury of the little Monk spews up against the Pope; nor contaminate Breasts sacred to Christ with impious Heresies, for if one sews these he has no Charity, swells with vain Glory, loses his Reason, and burns with Envy. Finally with what Feelings they would stand together against the Turks, against the Saracens, against anything Infidel anywhere, with the same Feelings they should stand together against this one little Monk weak in Strength, but in Temper more harmful than all Turks, all Saracens, all Infidels anywhere.” • The Church was grateful for the English support and on 11th October 1521, Henry VIII received and accepted the title of FideiDefensor, or Defender of the Faith (the Faith being Catholicism), signed by Pope Leo X and his Cardinals.
Lutheranism • Three main ideas • People could win salvation only by faith in God’s gift of forgiveness. The Church taught that faith and “good works” were needed for salvation. • All Church teachings should be clearly based on the words of the Bible. Both the pope and Church traditions were false authorities. • All people with faith were equal. Therefore, people did not need priests to interpret the Bible for them.
John Calvin • He’s in Switzerland • Early convert to Protestantism • Wrote summary of Protestant beliefs, established himself as leader within the faith • Taking Luther’s idea that humans cannot earn salvation, Calvin went on to say that God chooses a very few people to save. Calvin called these few the “elect.” He believed that God has known since the beginning of time who will be saved. • This idea is known as predestination, • Eventually “Calvinism” became the foundation for the Presbyterian church
Henry VIII • King of England during early part of Renaissance • Wanted to divorce his wife because she had yet to give him a male heir. Is this ok? • Established Protestant Church in England called the Anglican Church • Let him divorce his wife, but other than that kept many of the same ideas as the Catholic Church • Overall had 6 wives (beheaded 2 of them) this is what he is most notably known for Horrible Histories song
Elizabeth I • Queen of England, daughter of Henry VIII • Turned her father’s Anglican Church into a moderate form of Protestantism during her reign as Queen • Her reign is known as the Elizabethan Era characterized by the flourishing of English Dramas and the works of men like William Shakespeare.
video • Henry VIII documentary
Become Martin Luther for a Day • Your task for today is to become Martin Luther. • I want you to think of something that you are passionate about changing. This can be something that really bugs you about school (i.e. dress code, cell phone policy, lunch detention etc), it could be something the bothers you about society and the world (i.e. pollution, how other countries view the US, the economic crisis we are in, the drinking age, the legalization of marijuana) it can really be anything as long as it is not sexual in nature and you are discussing it in a MATURE, EDUCATED manor. • You have to come up with as close to 10 statements. These statements have to be educational and thought out statements not just “the dress code sucks…” • Remembering you are fighting for your cause and you are trying to convince me and the class why this matter needs to change and how we can change it.
Warm-up • European society during the Renaissance differed from European society during the Middle Ages in that during the Renaissance • The Church was no longer influential • The emphasis on individual worth increased • Economic activity declined • Art no longer contained religious themes • Which idea about leadership would Machiavelli, a Ren. Humanist, most likely support? • Leaders should do whatever is necessary to achieve their goals • Leaders should fight against discrimination and intolerance • Leaders should listen to the desire of the people • Elected leaders should be fair and good
The Jesuits • In 1540 the pope created a religious order for his followers called the Society of Jesus. • Group of Catholics who wanted to restore Catholicism to those areas in Europe who had converted to Protestantism • Missionaries, took a vow of allegiance to the Pope • Recognized as new religious order within Catholicism • Using education, restored Catholicism to many areas in Europe
Council of Trent • Body of Catholic Bishops • Met over 18 year period to work on reforming corrupt practices in Catholicism • Upheld the idea that good works were required for salvation, & use of indulgences
What they agreed on • The Church’s interpretation of the Bible was final. Any Christian who substituted his or her own interpretation was a heretic. • Christians needed faith and good works for salvation. They were not saved by faith alone, as Luther argued. • The Bible and Church tradition were equally powerful authorities for guiding Christian life. • Indulgences were valid expressions of faith. But the false selling of indulgences was banned.
Effects of the Reformation • Religious and Social Effects - Protestant churches flourished and new denominations developed. - The Roman Catholic Church itself became more unified as a result of the reforms started at the Council of Trent. -New emphasis on Education which lead to founding of new schools and universities. • Political effects of the Reformation -Monarchs and states gained power -laid groundwork for the Enlightenment