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Chapter 2 – A Living Planet. Physical Geography The study of the natural aspects of the Earth. The Earth. Earth's inner core is solid iron, its outer core is liquid iron mixed with other components, and its mantle is dense rock.  . Earth Inside and Out. Inside the Earth Core

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chapter 2 a living planet

Chapter 2 – A Living Planet

Physical Geography

The study of the natural aspects of the Earth.

the earth
The Earth

Earth's inner core is solid iron, its outer core is liquid iron mixed with other components, and its mantle is dense rock.  

earth inside and out
Earth Inside and Out
  • Inside the Earth
    • Core
      • Inner Core – Solid Iron ball
      • Outer Core – swirling melted metals
    • Mantle
      • Contains most of the Earth’s mass
        • Magma forms in mantle
on and above the earth
On And Above The Earth
  • Atmosphere
    • Layer of gases surrounding the Earth
  • Lithosphere
    • Solid rock portion of earth’s surface
    • Underwater it’s called the sea floor
    • Huge landmasses above the sea floor are called CONTINENTS
  • Hydrosphere
    • All water elements on earth
      • Oceans, seas, rivers, water in atmosphere, etc.
the biosphere
The Biosphere
  • Biosphere
    • Part of the earth where plants and animals live
    • Made up of atmosphere, lithosphere and hydrosphere
bodies of water and landforms
Bodies of Water and Landforms
  • Bodies of water
    • Many types of bodies of water on Earth
    • Examples
      • Oceans, seas, lakes, rivers, streams, ground water

Windward Side

Leeward Side

  • Giant waves in the ocean usually caused by massive shifts in the Earth’s crust
  • Tsunami Animation
2 3 internal forces shaping the earth
2-3 Internal Forces Shaping the Earth
  • Tectonic Plates
    • Huge masses of lithosphere that move and shift atop the hot, molten asthenosphere.
Continental Drift
    • The theory that the continents have shifted over time into new positions on the face of the Earth
    • Began with Pangaea
plate movement14
Plate Movement
  • 2) subduction or diving under another plate
plate movement15
Plate Movement
  • 3) collision or crashing into each other
plate movement16
Plate Movement
  • 4) shearing or sliding past each other

Plate A

Plate B

types of plate boundaries
Types of Plate Boundaries

1) Divergent Boundary – Plates move away from each other. (Spreading)

2) Convergent Boundary – Plates move toward each other. (Subduction or Collision)

3) Transform Boundary – Plates slide past each other. (Shearing)

When two plates meet they can cause folding or cracking
    • Fault – crack in the Earth’s crust where two plates meet.

San Andreas Fault Line

  • Sudden shifts along fault line
  • Seismograph
    • Special device that can detect vibrations in the Earth’s surface
    • Richter Scale – a scale of measurement used to determine how strong an earthquake is
  • Magma eruptions through crust of the Earth. Many underwater.

Named after Vulcan the Roman god for fire and metal working. He was the protector of smiths, and was normally depicted as a bearded man, dressed as a worker and carrying the utensils of a smith.

Ring of Fire
    • Ring of volcanoes and volcanic activity around the Pacific Ocean
2 4 external forces shaping the earth
2-4 External Forces Shaping the Earth
  • Weathering
    • Mechanical, chemical
  • Erosion
    • Water, Wind, Glacial
  • Building Soil
    • Weathering and erosion break down the Rocks of the Earth and create soil.