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PUMA and Planet Simulator Installation Graphics Model setup Climate Richard Blender Москва June 18, 2010. PUMA and Planet Simulator (PlaSim). Installation Model Starter Graphical User Interface PUMA design Planet Simulator design and climate. PUMA and Planet Simulator: Credits.

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puma and planet simulator installation graphics model setup climate richard blender june 18 2010

PUMA and Planet SimulatorInstallation GraphicsModel setupClimateRichard BlenderМосква June 18, 2010

puma and planet simulator plasim
PUMA and Planet Simulator (PlaSim)
  • Installation
  • Model Starter Graphical User Interface
  • PUMA design
  • Planet Simulator design and climate
puma and planet simulator credits
PUMA and Planet Simulator: Credits

Frank Lunkeit Edilbert Kirk Thomas Frisius Klaus Fraedrich

Torben Kunz, Simon Blessing, Silke Schubert

Kerstin Haberkorn, Hartmut Borth

Email addresses: 1st.2nd@zmaw.de, e.kirk@gmx.de

puma and planet simulator model design
PUMA and Planet Simulator: Model Design

Model Environment for geophysical fluid dynamics and climate simulations

Earth, Mars and Titan

Modular, Parallel, Portable

Fortran90, MPI

Data compatible 



Users's Guide, Reference Manual, Commented Fortran 90 source code


Interactive Graphical User Interface

Open source

puma and planet simulator package installation
PUMA and Planet Simulator: Package Installation

See also the file README

Most version 16 soon available

puma and planet simulator directories
PUMA and Planet Simulator: directories

Time steps


T21 60 45 min

T42 30 15


In directory /run (im /puma or /plasim)

Asks for file puma_restart

Create by cp puma_status puma_restart

Boundary conditions

e.g. SST in PlaSim, altered in version 16, using codes

Directory /run

File surface.txt (12 months, annual cycle)


Start GUI:




model starter most graphical user interface
Model starter Most, Graphical user interface

Graphical User Interface GUI


Change parameters and output windows interactively

DISP Noise amplitude

DTEP Temp diff Equator - Pole

DTNS Temp diff North - South

Global means

Select visible windows

impacts CPU time

puma and planet simulator
PUMA and Planet Simulator

Graphical User Interface GUI

Planet Simulator


CO2 concentration [ppmv]

GSOL0 solar const [W/m2]

DAWN zenith angle threshold




Portable University Model of the Atmosphere

Primitive equation GCM

with diabatic forcing


PUMA: History

PUMA is based on the multi-level spectral model SGCM (Simple Global Circulation Model) described by Hoskins and Simmons (1975) and James and Gray (1986).

B. J. Hoskins and A. J. Simmons. A multi-layer spectral model and the semi-implicit method. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 101:637–655, 1975.


Major extensions in PUMA

Portable FORTRAN-90


MPI-library (Message Passing Interface library) to run PUMA on parallel machines. PUMA is fully parallelized, as many CPU’s as latitudes (e.g. 32 in T21 resolution).


Xlib (X11R6) library needed for the graphical user interface


The truncation scheme is standard triangular truncation, compatible to other

T-models like ECHAM.


data compatible to ECHAM/Afterburner


PUMA and PlaSim-Atmosphere (also PUMA-II)

Hydrostatic primitive equations

Spectral, triangular truncation, n = 21, 31, 42, 85, 127, 170, …

Standard T21, T42, ..., higher resolutions tested

σ coordinates, N = 5, 10 levels


Vorticity: leap frog, Robert Asselin filter

Divergence: Semi-implicit (SGCM Hoskins and Simmons, 1975)


PUMA: Forcing by Restoration temperature

Diabatic heating with restoration temperature (‘Newtonian cooling’)


Restoration temperature (standard setup)

meridional gradient decreases with height and vanishes at the tropopause

Restoration temperature (°C)

standard parameters:

(ΔTR)EP = 70 K

(ΔTR)NS = 0 K


Friction and Hyperdiffusion

Linear drag (Rayleigh friction) in vorticity and divergence

τlevel dependent


for a spectral mode γ


Vertical Discretization (σ)

N = 5, 10, 20, ... levels


Planet Simulator

‘Earth System Model’

including atmosphere, ocean, and land

Atmosphere based on PUMA (‘PUMA-II’)

Some parameterizations are of intermediate complexity

planet simulator parameterizations
Planet Simulator: Parameterizations

Surface fluxes bulk formulas drag and transfer coefficents Richardson number

planet simulator diffusion
Planet Simulator: Diffusion

Differences compared to PUMA

Vertical diffusion

Horizontal diffusion (n^2 diffusion above threshold)

planet simulator radiation
Planet Simulator: Radiation

Short wave radiation

Clear sky (Lacis and Hansen, 1974)

Rayleigh scattering, ozone absorption, water vapor absorption,

absorption and scattering by aerosols (dust and cloud droplets)


cloud liquid water path

Long wave radiation

Clear sky (Manabe and Möller, 1961)

Water vapor, carbon dioxide and ozone


Gray bodies - or cloud flux emissivity from cloud liquid water content

Vertical discretization: Chou et al. (2002)

Additional Newtonian cooling

Possible to correct uppermost level

planet simulator precipitation and clouds
Planet Simulator: Precipitation and Clouds

Cumulus convection: Kuo-type convection scheme

Large scale precipitation for supersaturation

At the surface a distinction between rain and snow fall

Cloud cover and cloud liquid water content: diagnostic,

Slingo and Slingo (1991)

Dry convective adjustment (for dry adiabatically unstable layers)

planet simulator land surface and soil
Planet Simulator: land surface and soil



N = 5 layers Δz = (0.4 m, 0.8 m, 1.6 m, 3.2 m, 6.4 m).


single-layer bucket model

river transport

Land surface

Albedo, Roughness length

glacier mask for permanent ice sheets

Evaporation efficiency

Biome model


planet simulator ocean
Planet Simulator: Ocean

Observed SST (AMIP)

Mixed layer ocean (Kraus, 1967; Dommenget and Latif, 2000)

LSG (Large scale geostrophic, Meier Reimer)

Sea ice model (thermodynamic), Semtner (1976)

planet simulator vegetation model
Planet Simulator: Vegetation model

Biome model SIMBA

Includes vegetation impact on land surface parameters

Two carbon pools:

fast representing leaf area

slow: woody biomass

Vegetation cover

By surface temperature, soil moisture, and maximum LAI (2…6)

Impacts on

albedo, roughness length, latent heat flux

planet simulator climate report
Planet Simulator: Climate report

Frank Lunkeit

Edilbert Kirk

Klaus Fraedrich

Kerstin Haberkorn

Frank Sielmann

Andrea Schneidereit


PUMA and Planet Simulator




puma and planet simulator design and validation
PUMA and Planet Simulator: Design and validation

Fraedrich, K., H. Jansen, E. Kirk, U. Luksch, F. Lunkeit, 2005:

The Planet Simulator: Towards a user friendly model. - Meteorol. Z. 14, 299-304.

Kirk, E., K. Fraedrich, F. Lunkeit, and C. Ulmen, 2009: The Planet Simulator: A coupled system of climate modules with real time visualization, CSPR report, Linköping universitet, 45, Art. 7

Liakka, J., 2006: Validation of the dynamical core of the Portable University Model of the Atmosphere (PUMA)

Blessing, S., R. J. Greatbatch, K. Fraedrich, and F. Lunkeit, 2008: Interpreting the atmospheric circulation trend during the last half of the 20th century: Application of an adjoint model. Journal of Climate, 21, 4629-4646

Frisius, T., K. Fraedrich, W. Wang, and X. Zhu, 2009: A spectral barotropic model of the wind-driven world ocean. Ocean Modelling, 30, 310-322

puma and planet simulator dynamical systems analysis
PUMA and Planet Simulator: Dynamical systems analysis

Seiffert, R., R. Blender, and K. Fraedrich, 2006: Subscale forcing in a global atmospheric circulation model and stochastic parameterisation. Quart. J. Roy. Meteorol. Soc., 132, 1627-1654

Pèrez-Munuzuri, V., R. Deza, K. Fraedrich, T. Kunz, and F. Lunkeit, 2005: Coherence resonance in an atmospheric global circulation model. Phys. Rev. E, 71, 065602(1-4)

Lunkeit, F, 2001: Synchronisation experiments with an atmospheric global circulation model. Chaos, 11, 47-51.

Guerrieri, A., 2009: Estimate of the largest Lyapunov characteristic exponent of a high dimensional atmospheric global circulation model. A sensitivity analysis. ENEA - Clima Globale - Unità Simulazioni Atmosferiche Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Roma

puma and planet simulator climate
PUMA and Planet Simulator: Climate

Lucarini, V., K. Fraedrich, and F. Lunkeit, 2010: Thermodynamic analysis of snowball earth hysteresis experiment: efficiency, entropy production, and irreversibility. Q. J. R. Meterol. Soc., 136, 2-11

Walter, K., U. Luksch, and K. Fraedrich, 2001: A response climatology of idealised midlatitude SST anomaly experiments with and without stormtrack. J. Climate, 14, 467-484

Lunkeit, F., K. Fraedrich, and S.E. Bauer, 1998: Storm tracks in a warmer climate: Sensitivity studies with a simplified global circulation model. Climate Dynamics, 13, 813-826

Fraedrich, K., H. Jansen, E. Kirk, and F. Lunkeit, 2005b: The Planet Simulator: Green planet and desert world. Meteorol. Zeitschrift, 14, 305-314.

Grieger, B., Segschneider, J. H. U. Keller, A. Rhodin, F. Lunkeit, E. Kirk, and K. Fraedrich, 2004: Simulating Titan's tropospheric circulation with the portable university model of the atmosphere. Advances in Space Research, 34, 1650-1654

Stenzel, O., B. Grieger, H. U. Keller, R. Greve, K. Fraedrich, and F. Lunkeit, 2007: Coupling Planet Simulator Mars, a general circulation model of the Martian atmosphere, to the ice sheet model SICOPOLIS. Planetary and Space Science, 55, 2087-2096

puma and planet simulator processes
PUMA and Planet Simulator: Processes

von Hardenberg, J., K. Fraedrich, F. Lunkeit, and A. Provenzale, 2000: Transient chaotic mixing during a baroclinic life cycle. Chaos, 10, 122-134

Kunz, T., K. Fraedrich, and F. Lunkeit, 2009: Response of idealized baroclinic wave life cycles to stratospheric flow conditions. J. Atmos. Sci., 66, 2288-2302

Kunz, T., K. Fraedrich, and E. Kirk, 2008: Optimisation of simplified GCMs using circulation indices and maximum entropy production. Climate Dynamics, 30, 803-813.

Müller, W., R. Blender, and K. Fraedrich, 2002: Low frequency variability in idealised GCM experiments with circumpolar and localised storm tracks. Nonlinear Processes Geophys., 9, 37-49

Franzke, C., K. Fraedrich, and F. Lunkeit, 2001: Teleconnections and low frequency variability in idealized experiments with two storm tracks. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., 127, 1321-1339