INTRODUCTIONTO MUSIC THEORY Wednesday, October 17, 2012
TODAY: • Music Sharing! • Review: Common Harmonies: MAJOR • Review: Common Harmonies: MINOR • Review: Broken Chords & Arpeggios • Review: Cadences • New: Passing Tones & Neighboring Tones • New: Composition in MAJOR & MINOR
COMMON HARMONIES: • MAJOR: • Scale degrees 1, 3, 5 = I chord • Scale degrees 2, 4, 5, 7 = V (or V7) chord • Scale degrees 1, 4, 6 = IV chord • When harmonizing with the V7 chord, the 5th is often omitted. • Most harmonizations begin with a I chord • Typical progression at the end of a piece: • ii–vi–V–I • IV–V–I
COMMON HARMONIES: • MINOR: • Scale degrees 1, 3, 5 = i chord • Scale degrees 2, 4, 5, 7 = V (or V7) chord • Scale degrees 1, 4, 6 = iv chord • When harmonizing with the V7 chord, the 5th is often omitted. • Most harmonizations begin with a i chord • Typical progression at the end of a piece: • ii–vi–V(7)–I • IV–V(7)–I
BROKEN CHORDS & ARPEGGIOS • BROKEN CHORDS: • A way to harmonize a melody in which the chord notes are “broken up” (not played simultaneously). • Opposite of Block chords (when the notes of a chord are played together at the same time). • ARPEGGIOS: • When the notes of a chord are played sequentially; one after the other. • “Arpeggio” comes from the Italian word, “arpeggiare”, meaning “to play on a harp.” • An arpeggio may be extended to an octave or more.
CADENCES: • A progression of at least two chords that end a phrase, section, or piece of music. • Authentic Cadence: • V(7)–I or V(7)–i • Plagal Cadence: • IV–I or IV–I (“Amen”) • Half Cadence: • any cadence ending on V • Deceptive Cadence: • V–chord other than I (typically ii, IV6, iv6, vi or VI)
PASSING TONES & NEIGHBORING TONES: • Most melodies include tones that are not part of the chord used for the harmony. These non–chord tones are called “non–harmonic tones.” • When a melody passes from one chord tone to a different chord tone with a non–harmonic tone in between, the non–harmonic tone is called a PASSING TONE. • When a melody passes from one chord tone back to the same chord tone with a non–harmonic tone in between, the non–harmonic tone is called a PASSING TONE. • Upper & lower neighboring tones
COMPOSITION: • Composition is a similar process regardless of whether you are composing in a major or a minor key. You can compose a melody based on a given chord progression. • Analyze the chord progression by writing Roman numerals below the chords and/chord symbols above the staff.
COMPOSITION: • Use both chord tones and non–chord tones (passing and neighboring) to make the melody unique and interesting. • Remember that the first and last note of a melody tends to be the root of the I (or i) chord. • Also, remember that a V or V7 chord usually precedes the last chord.
YOUR COMPOSITIONS… • Using Noteflight, start adding harmony (chords/arpeggios, etc.) to your composition! • As a part of your final exam, you will turn in a ‘completed’ composition. This must include: • Your original poem/quote/text/lyrics • Melody line • Harmonization (chord tones & non–chord tones) • Correct key signatures, time signature, etc. • Dynamic, articulation, and tempo markings • Any other theoretical components that we’ve studied during this term that you’d like to employ to make your composition the best it can be! • Bring a copy of your composition to class on Friday!