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INTRODUCTION TO MUSIC THEORY

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  1. INTRODUCTION TO MUSIC THEORY Tuesday, October 16, 2012

  2. TODAY’S GAME PLAN: • Music Sharing! • Review: • Seventh chords • Forms of minor (relative, parallel, natural, harmonic, melodic) • Minor key signatures/Circle of Fifths placement for minor • Modes (What are they? How do they work/function?) • NEW! • Harmonizing a melody in a MAJOR key • Cadences • Broken chords & arpeggiated accompaniments

  3. TRIADS: • MAJOR: M3 + m3 (P5) • MINOR: m3 + M3 (P5) • DIMINISHED: m3 + m3 (dim5) • AUGMENTED: M3 + M3 (aug5)

  4. SEVENTH CHORDS: • Major–Major seventh (M7) • Major triad + Major 3rd • Major–minor seventh (Mm7) (V7) • Major triad + minor 3rd • minor–minor seventh (m7) • minor triad + minor 3rd • half–diminished seventh (ѳ7) • diminished triad + Major 3rd • diminished seventh (ס7) • diminished triad + minor 3rd

  5. INVERSIONS: • Triads: • 1st Inversion 63 (6) (C/E) • 2nd Inversion 64 (C/G) • Seventh Chords: • Root position 7 (C7) • 1st Inversion 65 (C7/E) • 2nd Inversion 43 (C7/G) • 3rd Inversion 42 (C7/Bb)

  6. MODES! • Modes related to MAJOR: • Ionian (scale degree 1) • A major scale (half steps: 3/4 & 7/8) • Mixolydian(scale degree 5) • A major scale with the 7th lowered by a half step (half steps: 3/4 & 6/7) • Lydian (scale degree 4) • A major scale with the 4th raised by a half step (half steps: 4/5 & 7/8)

  7. MODES! • Modes related to MINOR: • Aeolian (scale degree 6) • A natural minor scale (half steps: 2/3 & 5/6) • Dorian (scale degree 2) • A natural minor scale with the 6th raised by a half step (half steps: 2/3 & 6/7) • Phrygian (scale degree 3) • A natural minor scale with the 2nd lowered by a half step (half steps: 1/2 & 5/6) • Locrian(rarely used) (scale degree 7) • A natural minor scale with the 2nd and the 5th lowered by a half step (half steps: 1/2 & 4/5)

  8. MORE MAGIC PHONE NUMBERS! • Ionian Mode (1)(W-W-H-W-W-W-H) • Mixolydian Mode (5) (W-W-H-W-W-H-W) • Lydian Mode (4)(W-W-W-H-W-W-H) • Aeolian Mode (6)(W-H-W-W-H-W-W) • Dorian Mode (2)(W-H-W-W-W-H-W) • Phrygian Mode (3)(H-W-W-W-H-W-W) • Locrian Mode (7)(H-W-W-H-W-W-W)

  9. MODES – USAGE: • Ionian – Major (the majority of Western music) • Dorian – Celtic • Phrygian – Modern composers/guitarists • Lydian – Jazz • Mixolydian – Popular for solo musicians • Aeolian – Blues (natural minor) • Locrian – Unstable & unsatisfying

  10. COMMON HARMONIES: • MAJOR: • Scale degrees 1, 3, 5 = I chord • Scale degrees 2, 4, 5, 7 = V (or V7) chord • Scale degrees 1, 4, 6 = IV chord • When harmonizing with the V7 chord, the 5th is often omitted. • Most harmonizations begin with a I chord • Typical progression at the end of a piece: • ii–vi–V–I • IV–V–I

  11. COMMON HARMONIES: • MINOR: • Scale degrees 1, 3, 5 = i chord • Scale degrees 2, 4, 5, 7 = V (or V7) chord • Scale degrees 1, 4, 6 = iv chord • When harmonizing with the V7 chord, the 5th is often omitted. • Most harmonizations begin with a i chord • Typical progression at the end of a piece: • ii–vi–V(7)–I • IV–V(7)–I

  12. CADENCES: • A progression of at least two chords that end a phrase, section, or piece of music. • Authentic Cadence: • V(7)–I or V(7)–i • Plagal Cadence: • IV–I or IV–I (“Amen”) • Half Cadence: • any cadence ending on V • Deceptive Cadence: • V–chord other than I (typically ii, IV6, iv6, vi or VI)

  13. BROKEN CHORDS & ARPEGGIOS: • BROKEN CHORDS: • A way to harmonize a melody in which the chord notes are “broken up” (not played simultaneously). • Opposite of Block chords (when the notes of a chord are played together at the same time). • ARPEGGIOS: • When the notes of a chord are played sequentially; one after the other. • “Arpeggio” comes from the Italian word, “arpeggiare”, meaning “to play on a harp.” • An arpeggio may be extended to an octave or more.

  14. YOUR COMPOSITIONS… • Start adding harmony to your composition! • Use Noteflight! • As a part of your final exam, you will turn in a ‘completed’ composition. This must include: • Your original poem/quote/text/lyrics • Melody line • Harmonization • Correct key signatures, time signature, etc. • Dynamic, articulation, and tempo markings • Any other theoretical components that we’ve studied during this term that you’d like to employ to make your composition the best it can be!