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War on Grammar. Battles. Parallel structure, noun phrases, verb phrases, adjectival phrases, adverbial phrases, participial phrases, prepositional phrases, absolute phrases Independent/dependent, noun, relative, and adverbial clauses Semicolon and colon usage. Evaluation.

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War on Grammar


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    1. War on Grammar

    2. Battles • Parallel structure, noun phrases, verb phrases, adjectival phrases, adverbial phrases, participial phrases, prepositional phrases, absolute phrases • Independent/dependent, noun, relative, and adverbial clauses • Semicolon and colon usage

    3. Evaluation • After each battle will be a quiz • After the unit is done, we will take a test after the final battle

    4. Parallel Structure • Using the same pattern of words to show that two or more ideas have the same level of importance • Making sure that words, phrases, and clauses agree • Typically joined by a conjunction (and, or)

    5. Why Is It Important? • Provides consistency • Ensures clarity • Makes writing easier to read

    6. Examples • Mary likes hiking, swimming, and riding a bicycle. • INCORRECT: Mary likes hiking, swimming, and to ride a bicycle. • The coach told the players that they should get a lot of sleep, not eat too much, and do some warm-up exercises before the game. • The coach told the players that they should get a lot of sleep, not eat too much, and to do some warm-up exercises before the game.

    7. Try It! Correct these sentences to show parallel structure • The salesman expected that he would present his product at the meeting, that there would be time for him to show his slide presentation, and that questions would be asked by prospective buyers. • The dictionary can be used to find these: word meanings, pronunciations, correct spellings, and looking up irregular verbs.

    8. Noun Phrases • Consist of a noun and all its modifiers • Functions as subject, object, or complement • Basically, the whole phrase functions as a noun • Ex. Dieters prefer green salad. • Ex. To read quickly and accurately is Eugene's goal. • Ex. Ice fishing is a popular winter pastime.

    9. Verb Phrases • Consists of a main verb plus helping verbs • Helping verbs add meaning to main verbs • Ex. We will meet at the library at 3:30 p.m. • Ex. I am learningmany new things. • Ex. The trip was approved by the professor.

    10. Adjectival Phrases • Adjective as head • Act as adjective in the sentence • Do one of two things • Expand noun phrases • Complete the verb • Ex. The unusually tall boy plays basketball. • Ex. He is good at sports. • Ex. They are really enthusiastic. • Ex. They are keen on football.

    11. Adverbial Phrases • Adverb at head • Act as adverb in the sentence • Modify verbs, adjectives, or adverbs • Ex. He opened it extremely easily. • Ex. I'll do it quite soon. • Ex. He was quite unexpectedly kind. • Ex. He came very surprisingly quickly.

    12. Participial Phrases • Participle – form of a verb that modifies a noun • Therefore, these are phrases that include a participle that modify a noun • Ex. Walking rapidly, we reached the town in fifteen minutes. • Ex. Annoyed by the noise, the teacher spoke sharply to the class. • Ex. Having won every game, Ohio State now led the Big Ten. • Ex. Disappointed by the loss in the Big Ten Championship Game, Ohio State dropped football altogether.

    13. Prepositional Phrases • Usually indicates the temporal (time), spatial (space) or logical relationship of its object to the rest of the sentence (on, beneath, beside, over, during, against) • Consists of a preposition and a noun or pronoun that is the object of said preposition • Ex. We drove to the store. • Ex. Up the hill we ran.

    14. Absolute Phrases • Consist of noun or pronoun, participle, and any modifiers • Do not modify any specific word, but the whole sentence • Add information • Ex. Their reputation as winners secured by victory, the New York Liberty charged into the semifinals. • The season [being] over, they were mobbed by fans in Times Square.

    15. Independent Clauses • Complete thought • Subject and a verb • Could stand alone as a sentence • Ex. My professor is intelligent. • Ex. The boy ran through the cornfield. • Ex. The dog chewed on its bone.

    16. Dependent Clauses • Not a complete thought • Still contains a subject and verb • Cannot stand alone as a sentence • Ex. When my brother and I play catch • Ex. Because I went to bed early. • Ex. Racing around the track

    17. Connecting Independent Clauses • Can be done in two ways • Comma + coordinating conjunction • Ex. I didn’t want to leave, but I had to go. • Semicolon + marker word • Ex. I went to the pizza place; however, it was already closed.

    18. Common Errors in Connecting Independent Clauses • Comma splice- when two independent clauses are separated only by a comma • Ex. Jack ran up the hill, Jill ran down the hill. • Fused sentences- when two independent clauses are connected without using punctuation • Ex. Jack ran up the hill Jill ran down the hill.

    19. Noun Clause • Not modifiers • Cannot stand alone • Functions as a noun- either as a subject, subject complement, direct object, or object of preposition • Contains noun clause markers • Markers: that, if, whether, how • Wh-words: what, when, where, which, who, whom, whose, why • Wh-ever words: however, whatever, whenever, wherever, whichever, whoever, whomever • Ex. Whether Fred can get a job is uncertain. • Ex. That George learned how to swim is a miracle.

    20. Relative Clause • Gives information about a noun • Sometimes called “adjective clause” • Who, whose, whom, that, which • Ex. I like the person who was nice to me. • Ex. I hate the dog that bit me.