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Thomas Jefferson President #3 1801-1809. Guiding Question: What impact did the first 3 presidents have on the development of American government and society?. Guiding Question: What impact did George Washington and John Adams have on the American government and society so far?.

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Guiding Question:What impact did the first 3 presidents have on the development of American government and society?

slide3

Guiding Question:What impact did George Washington and John Adams have on the American government and society so far?

the early republic
The Early Republic

George Washington

Creates Government

1st President

John Adams (Federalist)

Establishes Government

2nd President

Domestic Policy

  • Whiskey Rebellion
  • *First gov’t is mighty and merciful”

Foreign Policy

  • Farewell Address 1796
  • “steer clear of foreign alliances …” –
  • Neutrality Proclamation

Domestic Policy

  • Continued policy of neutrality
  • Alien and Sedition Acts
  • “deportation or silence those against gov’t”

Foreign Policy

  • XYZ Affair
  • “millions for defense, not one cent for tribute”
our first three presidents
Our First Three Presidents…
  • George Washington- Creation of foreign and domestic affairs( Precedents, cabinet, Neutrality, Whiskey Rebellion).
  • John Adams- Establishment of Foreign and domestic affairs ( XYZ Affair, Alien and Sedition Acts, and Political Parties).
  • Thomas Jefferson-Reaction to foreign and domestic affairs( Election of 1800, Louisiana Purchase, Embargo Act, and Judicial Review).
the election of 1800
The Election of 1800
  • Federalists-John Adams running for his second term and Charles Pinckney for Vice President.
  • Republicans- nominated Thomas Jefferson for President and Aaron Burr as Vice President.
  • At the time the electors voted for each presidential and vice-presidential candidate individually rather than voting for a party’s candidates as a team.
the election of 18001
The Election of 1800
  • Federalists did not want Jefferson to become president, so they supported Aaron Burr.
  • It came down to one federalist vote, who decided not to support Aaron Burr.
  • Jefferson became President and Burr became Vice President.
  • Congress passed the 12th Amendment in 1804 -instead of casting two votes for President, each elector must pick a President AND a Vice President on one ballot. This ensures that the President will be paired with his running mate after the election.
the louisiana purchase 18031
The Louisiana Purchase 1803
  • Jefferson favored expanding the nation westward to acquire more land.
  • The territory of the United States extended only as far west as the Mississippi River.
  • The area to the west of the river-is known as the Louisiana Purchase. Spain original acquired this land.
the louisiana purchase 18032
The Louisiana Purchase 1803
  • Mississippi River- important for the farmers to ship their crops to markets.
  • The Spanish allowed the Americans to sail on the lower Mississippi and trade in New Orleans.
  • But… in 1802 The Spanish suddenly changed their policy.
  • Spain and France made a secret agreement that transferred this territory to France.
the louisiana purchase 18033
The Louisiana Purchase 1803
  • France’s Leader- Napoleon Bonaparte wanted empires in Europe and America.
  • But France needed money to finance Napoleon’s plans for war against Britain so he decided to sell this land.
  • For the price of 15 million dollars.
  • The size of the United States doubled!
  • Did the Constitution give him the power to buy land?
  • Elastic Clause: The Congress shall have Power - To make all Laws which shall be necessary and proper.
the louisiana purchase
The Louisiana Purchase
  • Jefferson uses his power to make treaties as the basis for his dealt to buy the Louisiana Territory from Napoleon (France).
  • Napoleon agreed to sell this territory because he needed money to continue fighting his war in Europe.
  • The purchase doubled the size of the United States.
jefferson s inaugural address
Jefferson’s Inaugural Address
  • March 4, 1801- He tried bridging the gap between the developing political parties.
  • “We are all Republicans, we are all Federalists”
  • Some of his goals: “a wise and frugal government.”
  • “The support of state governments in all their rights.”
  • Believed in reducing the power and size of the federal government.
  • SEE LAISSEZ-FAIRE ON NEXT SLIDE
laissez faire let the people do as they choose
Laissez-faire: let the people do as they choose.

Hands off government. People have the power.

guiding questions
Guiding Questions
  • What was the purpose of the Lewis and Clark expedition?
  • What did Jefferson instruct Lewis and Clark to do on their expedition?
  • What did Lewis and Clark accomplish?
  • What obstacles do you think would have been the most difficult for the expedition?
slide17

Head of a Vulture (California condor, Gymnogyps califorianus),February 17, 1806, Codex J, p. 80

lewis and clark
Lewis and Clark
  • Explored the new lands of the Louisiana Purchase.
  • Jefferson instructed the explorers to study the climate, wildlife, soil, and mineral resources of the new lands.
  • As they traveled, the expedition met people from various Indian nations.
  • Native American (Mandans)- Sacajawea offered to guide the explorers across the Rocky Mountains.
slide20

Great (Celilo) Falls of the Columbia River, Washingtonand Oregon, October 22–23, 1805, Codex H, p.1

slide21

Mississippi River and Tributaries in Present Minnesota, undated (winter 1804–5), Codex C, p. 155

pinckney treaty new orleans
Pinckney Treaty- New Orleans
  • Spain owned the port of New Orleans and threatened to close it to American trade (1795).
  • President Washington sent Thomas Pickney to negotiate a treaty.
  • Spain agreed to let Americans ship their goods down the Mississippi and store them in warehouses in New Orleans.
find your pinckney treaty evidence here
Find Your PINCKNEY TREATY Evidence Here!
  • EVIDENCE SITE:

http://history.state.gov/milestones/1784-1800/PickneyTreaty

marbury vs madison judicial review
Marbury vs. Madison-Judicial Review
  • Marbury vs. Madison- was the first time a law of Congress was ever declared unconstitutional.
  • In the time between the election and the time Jefferson took office, Congress passed the Judiciary Act of 1801.
  • Judiciary Act of 1801-Gave the President the power to appoint more federal judges.
marbury vs madison judicial review1
Marbury vs. Madison-Judicial Review
  • John Adams tried to appoint as many federalists judges as he could before Thomas Jefferson took office.
  • Midnight Judges-Adams appointed judges late into the night before Jefferson took office (William Marbury).
  • Jefferson told James Madison (Secretary of State) to not let Adams deliver the commissions.
  • Jefferson did not want all those Federalist judges.
find your marbury vs madison evidence here
Find Your MARBURY vs. MADISON Evidence Here!
  • EVIDENCE SITE:

http://www.ourdocuments.gov/doc.php?flash=true&doc=19

thomas jefferson democratic republican extension of government
Thomas JeffersonDemocratic RepublicanExtension of Government

Domestic Policy

Foreign Policy

  • Limited Government
  • Louisiana Purchase 1803
  • Lewis and Clark Expedition

Jefferson’s Biggest Mistake!

Let’s see why ….

the barbary states
The Barbary States
  • Pirates from nations along the coast of North Africa attacked vessels from Europe and the United States.
  • To protect American ships, the United States paid a yearly tribute (bribe) to the rulers of the Barbary States.
  • Tripoli- One of the Barbary States.
war with tripoli
War with Tripoli
  • Tripoli demanded a larger bribe than usual. Jefferson refused to pay and Tripoli declared war on the United States.
  • Jefferson ordered the Navy to blockade the port of Tripoli.
  • Philadelphia-American ship that was seized by pirates during the blockade.
  • In response- Americans late in the night captured their ship and set it on fire.
  • In 1805-Tripoli signed a treaty.
seizing american sailors
Seizing American Sailors
  • The British navy kidnapped American sailors and forced them to serve on British ships during the war with France.
  • Impressments: forcing people into service.
  • To fight France, the British navy needed more men than ever before.
the embargo act of 1807 jefferson s biggest mistake
The Embargo Act of 1807(Jefferson’s biggest mistake)
  • Embargo: is a ban on trade with another country.
  • The Embargo Act forbade Americans to export or import goods.
  • Was meant to hurt Britain and France, but Americans suffered more economically.
  • To end the embargo act, Congress passed the Nonintercourse Act.
  • Nonintercourse Act: allowed Americans to trade with all nations except Britain and France.