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Nervous System. By: Joe Matten Casey Crocamo Kevin Li Allie Erickson Wenyi Lau. Nervous System . Neurons can help to take in stimuli from both outside and inside the body. They can process these stimuli to control other bodily functions.(motor output)

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nervous system

Nervous System

By: Joe Matten

Casey Crocamo

Kevin Li

Allie Erickson

Wenyi Lau

nervous system1
Nervous System
  • Neurons can help to take in stimuli from both outside and inside the body.
  • They can process these stimuli to control other bodily functions.(motor output)
  • The three types of neurons are sensory(afferent), interneurons, and motor(efferent)
  • A good way to remember the difference is efferent=effect
nervous system cns pns
Nervous System(CNS+PNS)
  • The nervous system is separated into two parts, peripheral and central.
  • The central includes the brain and the spinal cord.
  • The peripheral includes all of the nerves outside of the brain and spinal cord
  • PNS is separated into the somatic (voluntary) and autonomic (involuntary) systems.
types of nervous system cells
Types of nervous system cells
  • Astrocytes, microglia, ependymal, oligodendrocytes, satellite, schwann.
  • Astrocytes are starshaped, they form the barrier between the capillaries and neurons in the brain.
  • Microglia are spider-like phagocytes that collect trash.
  • Ependymal cells line the brain+spinal cord spaces. They help move CSF.
nervous system cells
Nervous system cells
  • Oligodendrocytes produce myelin sheath around nerve fibers in the CNS
  • Satellite cells protect neurons
  • Schwann cells produce myelin sheath around the nerve fibers in the PNS
cell body
Cell Body
  • Nissl substance is the specialized rough ER
  • Neurofibrils provide a cytoskeleton that helps cells maintain their shape
  • Dendrites conduct impulses towards the body, while Axons take them away from the body.
  • There are axon terminals with vesicles and neurotransmitters. They are separated with a synaptic cleft.
  • Schwann cells produce myelin sheaths. The gaps between these schwann cells are called the Nodes of Ranvier.
cell bodies
Cell bodies
  • Gray matter consists of cell bodies and unmylenated fibers.
  • Nuclei are clusters of cell bodies within the white matter.
cell bodies1
Cell bodies
  • Multipolar neurons have multiple extensions from the body
  • Bipolar neurons have one axon and one dendrite
  • Unipolar neurons have a short single process leaving the cell body.
  • The plasma membrane is polarized at -70mv
  • There are more sodium ions outside of the membrane, with more potassium ions inside the membrane.
  • Threshold is at -55mv.
  • It depolarizes, Na+ channels open to let sodium ions flow in.
  • It then repolarizes, the potassium channels opens and the potassium ions are sent in.
  • It then hyperpolarizes for a few milliseconds and enters the refractory period where it cannot transmit any signals
reflex arc
Reflex Arc
  • The reflex arc is the route from a sensory neuron to an interneuron then to an effector.
  • There are two types of reflex arcs, autonomic and somatic.
  • Autonomic reflexes include smooth muscle regulation, heart+blood pressure regulations, glandular regulation and digestive system regulations.
  • The somatic reflexes include activation of skeletal muscles
  • The CNS develops from the embryonic neural tube, includes the brain and the spinal cord. There are four chambers in the brain filled with CSF.
  • There are 4 main regions of the brain, the cerebral hemispheres, diencephalon, brain stem and cerebellum.
  • There cerebrum has a frontal, parietal, occipital and temporal lobe.
lobes of the brain
Lobes of The Brain
  • Frontal Lobe
  • Parietal Lobe
  • Occipital Lobe
  • Temporal Lobe
  • The cerebrum consists of an outer layer made up of gray matter.
  • The cerebral cortex is involved in speech, memory, logical and emotional responses, consciousness, interpretation of sensation, and voluntary movement
white matter
White Matter
  • Corpus Callosum connects the hemispheres of the brain.
  • Made of three parts:
  • Thalamus
  • Hypothalamus
  • Epithalamus
  • Thalamus: relays sensory impulses
  • Hypothalamus: helps to regulate body temperature, controls water balance and regulates metabolism
  • Part of limbic system
  • Epithalamus: includes pineal gland and the choroid plexus (forms CSF)
brain stem
Brain Stem
  • Midbrain: reflex centers for vision and hearing
  • Pons: control of breathing
  • Medulla oblongata: heart rate control, blood pressure regulation, breathing, swallowing and vomiting
reticular formation
Reticular Formation
  • Involved in sleep/wake cycles and consciousness
  • Also involved in motor control of visceral organs
  • coordination of body movements
  • The central nervous system is protected by the scalp, skin, skull, cerebrospinal fluid, blood brain barrier and vertebral column and the meninges
  • Dura mater: exterior cover and contains periosoteum and meningeal layer
  • Arachnoid layer: middle layer and is web-like
  • Pia mater: the internal layer and clings to the surface of the brain
cerebrospinal fluid
Cerebrospinal Fluid
  • Formed by the choroid plexus and protects and cushions the brain
  • Found inside the arachnoid space
blood brain barrier
Blood Brain Barrier
  • Protects the brain from harmful substances
  • The things that can pass through:
  • Fats and fat soluble molecules
  • Respiratory gases
  • Alcohol
  • Nicotine
  • Anesthesia
traumatic brain injuries
Traumatic Brain Injuries
  • Concussion: slight brain injury and leads to no permanent brain damage
  • Contusion
  • Nervous tissue destruction occurs
  • Nervous tissue does not regenerate
  • Cerebral edema
  • Swelling from the inflammatory response
  • May compress and kill brain tissue ; 3 ;
  • Cerebrovascular Accident (CVA)
  • Caused by a ruptured blood vessel and results in oxygen deprivation
alzheimer s disease
Alzheimer’s disease
  • This is when victims experience memory loss, irritability, confusion, and hallucinations and eventually death
spinal cord
Spinal Cord
  • Carries nerve impulses from the brain to the limb
  • Protected and cushioned by the meninges
structure of a nerve
Structure of a Nerve
  • Outer: endoneurium
  • Middle: perineurium
  • Inner: epineurium