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NERVOUS SYSTEM. FUNCTIONS. TO DETECT CHANGES AND FEEL SENSATIONS TO INITIATE APPROPRIATE RESPONSES TO CHANGE TO ORGANIZE INFORMATION FOR IMMEDIATE USE AND TO STORE IT FOR FUTURE USE. DIVISIONS OF THE NS. CNS INCLUDES BRAIN AND SPINAL CORD PNS

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functions
FUNCTIONS
  • TO DETECT CHANGES AND FEEL SENSATIONS
  • TO INITIATE APPROPRIATE RESPONSES TO CHANGE
  • TO ORGANIZE INFORMATION FOR IMMEDIATE USE AND TO STORE IT FOR FUTURE USE
divisions of the ns
DIVISIONS OF THE NS
  • CNS

INCLUDES BRAIN AND SPINAL CORD

  • PNS

INCLUDES CRANIAL NERVES, SPINAL NERVES, AND THE AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM (ANS)

parts of a nerve cell
PARTS OF A NERVE CELL
  • DENDRITES – TRANSMIT IMPULSES TOWARDS THE CELL BODY
  • CELL BODY – CONTAINS NUCLEUS
  • AXON – TRANSMIT IMPULSES AWAY FROM THE CELL BODY
slide7
BETWEEN NERVE CELLS ARE SYNAPSES
  • NEUROTRANSMITTERS SUCH AS ACETYLCHOLINE CARRY THE IMPULSE ACROSS THE SYNAPSE
  • THESE ARE DESCRIBED AS A CHEMICAL TRANSMISSION
what s similar in the cns and the pns
WHAT’S SIMILAR IN THE CNS AND THE PNS?
  • BOTH CONTAIN THE MYELIN SHEATH (A SHEATH THAT ELECTRICALLY INSULATES NEURONS FROM ONE ANOTHER)
  • THE MYELIN SHEATH ALLOWS SMOOTH NERVE IMPULSE TRANSMISSION FROM ONE NEURON TO ANOTHER
what s different in the cns and the pns
WHAT’S DIFFERENT IN THE CNS AND THE PNS?
  • CNS
  • THE MYELIN SHEATH IS FORMED BY OLIGODENDROCYTES, A SPECIALIZED CELL THAT CANNOT REGENERATE
for example
FOR EXAMPLE
  • THE PHRENIC NERVE – C3-C5
what s different in the cns and pns
WHAT’S DIFFERENT IN THE CNS AND PNS?
  • PNS
  • THE MYELIN SHEATH IS MADE OF SCHWANN CELLS
  • THE NUCLEI ARE OUTSIDE OF THE MYELIN SHEATH AND CALLED A NEUROLEMMA
  • THESE CAN REGENERATE
the reflex arc
THE REFLEX ARC
  • THE PATHWAY NERVE IMPUSLES TRAVEL WHEN A REFLEX IS ELICITED
5 essential parts to reflex
5 ESSENTIAL PARTS TO REFLEX
  • RECEPTORS – DETECT STIMULUS AND GENERATE IMPULSE
  • SENSORY NEURON – CARRY IMPULSES TO THE CNS
  • CNS – CONTAINS 1 OR MORE SYNAPSES
  • MOTOR NEURON – CARRY IMPULSES FROM THE CNS TO THE EFFECTOR
  • EFFECTOR – PERFORMS ACTION
stretch reflex
STRETCH REFLEX
  • KEEPS OUR BODY UPRIGHT WITHOUT THINKING
flexor reflex
FLEXOR REFLEX
  • AKA WITHDRAWAL REFLEX
  • PREVENTS INJURY BY PULLING AWAY FROM A

PAINFUL

STIMULUS

spinal cord
SPINAL CORD
  • TRANSMITS MESSAGES TO AND FROM THE BRAIN
  • EXTENDS FROM THE

FORAMEN MAGNUM

TO L2

  • CALLED THE CAUDA

EQUINA AFTER

L2

spinal cord20
SPINAL CORD
  • THE CENTER OF THE CORD CONTAINS GRAY MATTER THAT CARRIES MOTOR IMPULSES
  • THE EXTERNAL PORTION OF THE CORD CONTAINS WHITE MATTER THAT CARRIES SENSORY IMPULSES
spinal cord21
SPINAL CORD
  • ASCENDING TRACTS CARRY SENSORY IMPULSES TO THE BRAIN (WHITE MATTER)
  • DESCENDING TRACTS CARRY MOTOR IMPULSES AWAY FROM THE BRAIN (GRAY MATTER)
  • THE CENTRAL CANAL CONTAINS CSF
spinal nerves
SPINAL NERVES
  • 31 PAIRS OF SPINAL

NERVES

8 CERVICAL

12 THORACIC

5 LUMBAR

5 SACRAL

1 COCCYGEAL

spinal nerves23
SPINAL NERVES
  • EACH SPINAL NERVE HAS 2 ROOTS
  • THE DORSAL ROOT CARRIES IMPULSES IN TO THE CORD
  • THE VENTRAL ROOT CARRIES IMPULSES OUT OF THE CORD
brain
BRAIN
  • CEREBRUM – LARGEST PART OF THE BRAIN
  • THE TWO HEMISPHERES ARE CONNECTED BY THE CORPUS CALLOSUM THAT CONNECTS THE RIGHT AND LEFT HEMISPHERES
  • THERE IS A LATERAL VENTRICLE IN EACH HEMISPHERE
cerebrum
CEREBRUM
  • THE CEREBRAL CORTEX (SURFACE) IS FOLDED EXTENSIVELY WITH GYRI THAT ALLOWS MILLIONS MORE NEURONS
cerebrum26
CEREBRUM
  • 4 LOBES
  • FRONTAL – MOTOR AREAS
  • PARIETAL – SENSORY AREAS
  • TEMPORAL – AUDITORY AND OLFACTORY AREAS
  • OCCIPITAL – VISUAL AREA
slide28
PITUITARY – CONTROLS GROWTH
  • THALAMUS – INTEGRATES SENSATIONS
  • HYPOTHALAMUS – MANY FUNCTIONS
  • CEREBELLUM – COORDINATION, POSTURE, EQUILIBRIUM
  • VENTRICLES (4) – CONTAINS THE CHOROID PLEXUS THAT MAKES CSF
brainstem
BRAINSTEM
  • MIDBRAIN – VISUAL AND AUDITORY REFLEXES
  • PONS – 2 RESPIRATORY CENTERS FOR NORMAL BREATHING
  • MEDULLA OBLONGATA – REGULATES HEART RATE, BLOOD PRESSURE, AND RESPIRATION. ALSO A REFLEX CENTER FOR COUGHING, SNEEZING, SWALLOWING, VOMITING
connective tissue membranes
CONNECTIVE TISSUE MEMBRANES
  • COVER BRAIN AND SPINAL CORD
  • CALLED MENINGES
  • 3 LAYERS
  • DURA MATER – THICK OUTER LAYER
  • ARACHNOID MEMBRANE – MIDDLE LAYER
  • PIA MATER – INNERMOST LAYER
  • SUBARACHNOID SPACE – CONTAINS CSF
slide32
CSF
  • CEREBROSPINAL FLUID
  • BRINGS NUTRIENTS TO CNS NEURONS AND REMOVES WASTES TO THE BLOOD
  • ACTS AS A CUSHION FOR CNS
cranial nerves
CRANIAL NERVES
  • 12 PAIRS
  • EMERGE FROM THE BRAIN STEM OR OTHER PARTS OF THE BRAIN
slide34
CN I – OLFACTORY

CN II – OPTIC

CN III – OCULOMOTOR

CN IV – TROCHLEAR

CN V – TRIGEMINAL

CN VI – ABDUCENS

CN VII – FACIAL

CN VIII – ACOUSTIC

CN IX – GLOSSOPHARYNGEAL

CN X – VAGUS

CN XI – ACCESSORY

CN XII - HYPOGLOSSAL

autonomic nervous system
AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM
  • PART OF THE PNS
  • 2 DIVISIONS
  • SYMPATHETIC
  • PARASYMPATHETIC

THESE ARE INTEGRATED BY THE HYPOTHALAMUS

slide36
SYMPATHETIC – “FIGHT OR FLIGHT”, DOMINATES DURING STRESSFUL SITUATIONS
  • PARASYMPATHETIC – DOMINATES DURING NONSTRESSFUL SITUATIONS AND INCREASES PERISTALSIS DURING DIGESTION
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