chapter 41 n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Chapter 41 PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Chapter 41

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 57

Chapter 41 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 100 Views
  • Uploaded on

Chapter 41. Animal Nutrition. Overview: The Need to Feed. Herbivores eat mainly autotrophs (plants and algae) Carnivores eat other animals Omnivores regularly consume animals as well as plants or algal matter. Essential Nutrients. There are four classes of essential nutrients:

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Chapter 41' - cicily


Download Now An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
chapter 41

Chapter 41

Animal Nutrition

overview the need to feed
Overview: The Need to Feed
  • Herbivores eat mainly autotrophs (plants and algae)
  • Carnivores eat other animals
  • Omnivores regularly consume animals as well as plants or algal matter
essential nutrients
Essential Nutrients
  • There are four classes of essential nutrients:
    • Essential amino acids
    • Essential fatty acids
    • Vitamins
    • Minerals
essential amino acids
Essential Amino Acids
  • Animals require 20 amino acids and can synthesize about half
  • Essential amino acids- must be obtained from food in preassembled form
  • “Complete” proteins- provides all the essential amino acids (meat, eggs, and cheese)
  • Most plant proteins are incomplete in amino acid makeup
slide5

Essential amino acids for adults

Beans and otherlegumes

Methionine

Valine

Threonine

Phenylalanine

Leucine

Corn (maize)and other grains

Isoleucine

Tryptophan

Lysine

essential fatty acids
Essential Fatty Acids
  • Animals can synthesize most of the fatty acids they need
  • The essential fatty acids are certain unsaturated fatty acids
vitamins
Vitamins
  • Vitamins are organic molecules required in the diet in small amounts
  • 13 essential vitamins
  • Two categories: fat-soluble and water-soluble
minerals
Minerals
  • Minerals are simple inorganic nutrients, usually required in small amounts
dietary deficiencies
Dietary Deficiencies
  • Undernourishment- diet with less chemical energy than the body requires
  • Malnourishment- absence from the diet of one or more essential nutrients
undernourishment
Undernourishment
  • An undernourished individual will
    • Use up stored fat and carbohydrates
    • Break down its own proteins
    • Lose muscle mass
    • Suffer protein deficiency of the brain
    • Die or suffer irreversible damage
malnourishment
Malnourishment
  • Malnourishment can cause deformities, disease, and death
the main stages of food processing are ingestion digestion absorption and elimination
The main stages of food processing are ingestion, digestion, absorption, and elimination
  • Ingestion is the act of eating
slide16
Suspension Feeders
  • Many aquatic animals are suspension feeders, which sift small food particles from the water
slide17

Leaf miner caterpillar,a substrate feeder

Substrate Feeders

Substrate feeders are animals that live in or on their food source

Caterpillar Feces

slide18
Fluid Feeders
  • Fluid feeders suck nutrient-rich fluid from a living host

Mosquito, a fluid feeder

slide19
Bulk Feeders
  • Bulk feeders eat relatively large pieces of food

Rock python, a bulk feeder

slide20
Digestion is the process of breaking food down into molecules small enough to absorb
    • Enzymatic hydrolysis splits bonds in molecules with the addition of water
  • Absorption is uptake of nutrients by body cells
  • Elimination is the passage of undigested material out of the digestive compartment
slide21

Smallmolecules

Piecesof food

Chemical digestion(enzymatic hydrolysis)

Nutrientmoleculesenter bodycells

Mechanicaldigestion

Undigestedmaterial

Food

Ingestion

Digestion

Elimination

Absorption

2

4

1

3

digestive compartments
Digestive Compartments
  • Intracellular Digestion- food is engulfed by endocytosis and digested within food vacuoles
  • Extracellular Digestion- food particles are broken down outside of cells
slide23

Tentacles

Gastrovascularcavity

Food

Mouth

Epidermis

Gastrodermis

slide24

Crop

Gizzard

Intestine

Esophagus

Pharynx

Gastrovascular cavity- functions in both digestion and distribution of nutrients

Complete digestive tract (alimentary canal)- digestive tube with two openings, a mouth and an anus

Anus

Mouth

Typhlosole

Lumen of intestine

(a) Earthworm

Foregut

Midgut

Hindgut

Esophagus

Rectum

Anus

Crop

Mouth

Gastric cecae

(b) Grasshopper

Stomach

Gizzard

Intestine

Mouth

Esophagus

Crop

Anus

(c) Bird

slide25

Crop

Gizzard

Intestine

Esophagus

Pharynx

Anus

Mouth

Typhlosole

Lumen of intestine

(a) Earthworm

slide26

Midgut

Foregut

Hindgut

Esophagus

Rectum

Anus

Crop

Mouth

Gastric cecae

(b) Grasshopper

slide27

Stomach

Gizzard

Intestine

Mouth

Esophagus

Crop

Anus

(c) Bird

organs of the mammalian digestive system
Organs of the mammalian digestive system
  • Peristalsis- rhythmic contractions of muscles to push along food
  • Sphincters regulate the movement of material between compartments
slide29

Salivaryglands

Mouth

Esophagus

Gall-bladder

Stomach

Smallintestine

Liver

Pancreas

Largeintestine

Rectum

Anus

A schematic diagram of thehuman digestive system

slide30

Tongue

Sphincter

Oral cavity

Salivary glands

Pharynx

Esophagus

Sphincter

Liver

Stomach

Ascendingportion oflarge intestine

Gall-bladder

Duodenum ofsmall intestine

Pancreas

Smallintestine

Smallintestine

Largeintestine

Rectum

Anus

Appendix

Cecum

the oral cavity pharynx and esophagus
The Oral Cavity, Pharynx, and Esophagus

Salivaryglands

Mouth

  • Oral cavity- mechanical digestion takes place
    • Salivary glands deliver saliva to lubricate food
      • Amylase- initiates breakdown of glucose polymers

Esophagus

Gall-bladder

Stomach

Smallintestine

Liver

Pancreas

Largeintestine

Rectum

Anus

A schematic diagram of thehuman digestive system

the oral cavity pharynx and esophagus1
The Oral Cavity, Pharynx, and Esophagus

Salivaryglands

Mouth

  • The tongue shapes food into a bolus and provides help with swallowing
  • Pharynx (throat)- opens to both the esophagus and the trachea (windpipe)

Esophagus

Gall-bladder

Stomach

Smallintestine

Liver

Pancreas

Largeintestine

Rectum

Anus

A schematic diagram of thehuman digestive system

the oral cavity pharynx and esophagus2
The Oral Cavity, Pharynx, and Esophagus

Salivaryglands

Mouth

  • Esophagus conducts food from the pharynx down to the stomach by peristalsis
    • Swallowing causes the epiglottis to block entry to the trachea

Esophagus

Gall-bladder

Stomach

Smallintestine

Liver

Pancreas

Largeintestine

Rectum

Anus

A schematic diagram of thehuman digestive system

slide34

Food

Epiglottisup

Tongue

Epiglottisup

Pharynx

Esophagealsphinctercontracted

Epiglottisdown

Glottis

Glottisdownand open

Esophagealsphinctercontracted

Larynx

Trachea

Esophagus

Esophagealsphincterrelaxed

Glottis upand closed

Relaxedmuscles

Tolungs

Tostomach

Contractedmuscles

Relaxedmuscles

Sphincterrelaxed

Stomach

digestion in the stomach chemical digestion in the stomach
Digestion in the Stomach- Chemical Digestion in the Stomach
  • Gastric juice is made up of hydrochloric acid and the enzyme pepsin
  • Parietal cells secrete hydrogen and chloride ions separately
  • Chief cells secrete inactive pepsinogen,it is activated to pepsin when mixed with HCl
  • Mucus protects the stomach lining from gastric juice
slide36

Esophagus

Sphincter

Stomach

Sphincter

5 µm

Small intestine

Folds ofepithelialtissue

Interior surfaceof stomach

slide37

Interior surfaceof stomach

Epithelium

3

1

Pepsinogen and HClare secreted.

Pepsinogen

Pepsin

2

HCl

Gastric gland

2

HCl convertspepsinogen to pepsin.

1

3

Pepsin activatesmore pepsinogen.

Mucus cells

H+

Cl–

Chief cells

Chief cell

Parietal cells

Parietal cell

stomach dynamics
Stomach Dynamics
  • Coordinated contraction and relaxation of stomach muscle churn the stomach’s contents
  • Sphincters prevent chyme from entering the esophagus and regulate its entry into the small intestine

Esophagus

Sphincter

Stomach

Sphincter

5 µm

Small intestine

Folds ofepithelialtissue

Interior surfaceof stomach

slide39

Carbohydrate digestion

Protein digestion

Nucleic acid digestion

Fat digestion

Oral cavity,pharynx,esophagus

Disaccharides

Polysaccharides

(starch, glycogen)

(sucrose, lactose)

Salivary amylase

Smaller polysaccharides,maltose

Stomach

Proteins

Pepsin

Small polypeptides

Lumen ofsmall intes-tine

DNA, RNA

Fat globules

Polypeptides

Polysaccharides

Pancreatic amylases

Pancreatic trypsin andchymotrypsin

Pancreatic nucleases

Bile salts

Maltose and otherdisaccharides

Fat droplets

Nucleotides

Smallerpolypeptides

Pancreatic lipase

Pancreatic carboxypeptidase

Glycerol, fattyacids, monoglycerides

Amino acids

Epitheliumof smallintestine(brushborder)

Small peptides

Nucleotidases

Nucleosides

Disaccharidases

Dipeptidases, carboxypeptidase,and aminopeptidase

Nucleosidasesandphosphatases

Nitrogenous bases,sugars, phosphates

Monosaccharides

Amino acids

digestion in the small intestine
Digestion in the Small Intestine

Salivaryglands

Mouth

  • Major organ of digestion and absorption
  • Duodenum (first part of small intestine)- acid chyme from the stomach mixes with digestive juices from the pancreas, liver, gallbladder, and the small intestine itself

Esophagus

Gall-bladder

Stomach

Smallintestine

Liver

Pancreas

Largeintestine

Rectum

Anus

A schematic diagram of thehuman digestive system

slide41

Liver

Gallbladder

Bile

Stomach

Secretinand CCK

Gastrin

+

CCK

+

Pancreas

Duodenum ofsmall intestine

Secretin

+

Key

StimulationInhibition

CCK

+

+

pancreatic secretions
Pancreatic Secretions

Salivaryglands

Mouth

  • The pancreas produces proteases trypsin and chymotrypsin, protein-digesting enzymes that are activated after entering the duodenum
  • Its solution neutralizes the acidic chyme

Esophagus

Gall-bladder

Stomach

Smallintestine

Liver

Pancreas

Largeintestine

Rectum

Anus

A schematic diagram of thehuman digestive system

bile production by the liver
Bile Production by the Liver

Salivaryglands

Mouth

  • Aids in digestion and absorption of fats
  • Bile is made in the liver and stored in the gallbladder

Esophagus

Gall-bladder

Stomach

Smallintestine

Liver

Pancreas

Largeintestine

Rectum

Anus

A schematic diagram of thehuman digestive system

secretions of the small intestine
Secretions of the Small Intestine
  • The epithelial lining of the duodenum produces several digestive enzymes
  • Most digestion occurs in the duodenum; the jejunum and ileum function mainly in absorption of nutrients and water
absorption in the small intestine
Absorption in the Small Intestine
  • The small intestine has a huge surface area, due to villiand microvillithat are exposed to the intestinal lumen
  • The enormous microvillar surface greatly increases the rate of nutrient absorption
slide46

Vein carrying bloodto hepatic portal vein

Muscle layers

Largecircularfolds

Villi

Key

Nutrientabsorption

Intestinal wall

slide47

Microvilli (brushborder) at apical(lumenal) surface

Lumen

Bloodcapillaries

Epithelialcells

Basal surface

Epithelial cells

Lacteal

Lymphvessel

Villi

Key

Nutrientabsorption

absorption in the large intestine
Absorption in the Large Intestine
  • Colon of the large intestine is connected to the small intestine
  • Cecumaids in the fermentation of plant material and connects where the small and large intestines meet
  • Appendix- an extension off the cecum,which plays a very minor role in immunity
  • The colon recover waters that has entered the alimentary canal and houses E. coli strains, some of which produce vitamins
slide49

Ascendingportion oflarge intestine

Smallintestine

Smallintestine

Largeintestine

Rectum

Anus

Appendix

Cecum

dental adaptations
Dental Adaptations

Incisors

  • The teeth of poisonous snakes are modified as fangs for injecting venom
  • All snakes can unhinge their jaws to swallow prey whole

Molars

Canines

Premolars

(a) Carnivore

(b) Herbivore

(c) Omnivore

stomach and intestinal adaptations
Stomach and Intestinal Adaptations
  • Herbivores have longer alimentary canals than carnivores, they need more time to digest vegetation

Small intestine

Stomach

Small intestine

Cecum

Colon(largeintestine)

Carnivore

Herbivore

mutualistic adaptations
Mutualistic Adaptations
  • Many herbivores have fermentation chambers, where symbiotic microorganisms digest cellulose (ruminants)
slide53

Rumen

Reticulum

1

2

Intestine

Esophagus

Abomasum

Omasum

4

3

energy sources and stores
Energy Sources and Stores
  • Animals store excess calories primarily as glycogen in the liver and muscles
  • Energy is secondarily stored as adipose, or fat, cells
overnourishment and obesity
Overnourishment and Obesity
  • Overnourishment causes obesity, which results from excessive intake of food energy with the excess stored as fat
  • Obesity contributes to diabetes (type 2), cancer of the colon and breasts, heart attacks, and strokes
  • The problem of maintaining weight partly stems from our evolutionary past, when fat hoarding was a means of survival
slide56

Ghrelin

Insulin

Leptin

PYY