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Nervous System. 12/7/2009. The nervous system is the body’s control center . The nervous system allows us to think, evaluate, and remember information . The most important part of the nervous system is the neuron or nerve cell .

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The nervous system is the body’s control center.
  • The nervous system allows us to think, evaluate, and remember information.
  • The most important part of the nervous system is the neuron or nerve cell.
  • There are three functions of the nervous system: sensory input, integration, and motor input.
Sensory input– When the eyes see something or hands touch a warm surface, the neurons send a message straight to the brain.
  • This action of getting information from the surrounding environment is called sensory input because things are being sent to the brain by way of the senses.
Integration– The interpretation, or translation, of things that have been felt, tasted, and touched with the sensory neurons into responses that the body recognizes.
  • This process is accomplished in the brain.
Motor output– Once your brain has interpreted all that has been sent by using any of the senses, then your brain sends a message through neurons to muscle or other cells, which work to perform the response.
The human nervous system is divided into two different systems: The central and the peripheral nervous systems.
central nervous system
Central Nervous System
  • It is the body’s most rapid means of maintaining homeostasis.
  • The central nervous system regulates vital bodily functions by sensing changes within the body and from the environment.
  • It interprets the changes and makes adjustments in a split-second by delivering impulses.
These impulses result in muscular contractions and/or glandular secretions.
  • The central nervous system consists of the brain and the spinal cord and association neurons.
    • These neurons make up most of the spinal cord and change the input impulse to output impulses and cause the body to respond.
peripheral nervous system
Peripheral Nervous System
  • two types of neurons in this system: sensory and motor
  • Sensory neuronssend information to the central nervous system from internal organs and from the environment
  • motor neurons send impulses to the voluntary and involuntary muscles.
The motor neurons are divided into the somatic nervous system and the autonomic nervous system.
  • The skeletal muscles and external sensory organs such as the skin are controlled by the somatic nervous system.
  • This system is said to be voluntary because the responses can be controlled consciously.
  • An exception is the reflex reactions of skeletal muscle. These are involuntary reactions to external stimuli.
  • The autonomic nervous system controls involuntary muscles such as smooth and cardiac muscle. This system is also called the involuntary nervous system.