Circulatory Systems By: Tim Nguyen EzequielJauregui
What is the Circulatory System? The circulatory system is an organ system that passes nutrients (such as amino acids, electrolytes, and lymph), gases, hormones, blood cells, etc. to and form cells in the body to help fight diseases, stabilize body temperature and pH, and to maintain homeostasis.
Importance The timely delivery of oxygen to the body’s organs is critical. For example, brain cells die within a few minutes if their oxygen supply is interrupted. Thus, maintaining heart function is crucial for survival.
Circulatory systems All animals have: circulatory fluid = “blood” tubes = blood vessels muscular pump = heart open closed
Open circulatory system Taxonomy invertebrates insects, arthropods, mollusks Structure no separation between blood & interstitial fluid hemolymph
Closed circulatory system closed system = higher pressures Taxonomy invertebrates earthworms, squid, octopuses vertebrates Structure blood confined to vessels & separate from interstitial fluid 1 or more hearts large vessels to smaller vessels material diffuses between blood vessels & interstitial fluid
The Mammalian Heart Pulmonary artery Aorta Pulmonaryveins Pulmonaryartery Anterior vena cava Leftatrium Right atrium Pulmonaryveins Atrioventricularvalve Semilunarvalve Semilunarvalve Atrioventricularvalve Posterior vena cava Right ventricle Figure 42.6 Left ventricle
Vertebrate cardiovascular system Chambered heart atrium = receive blood ventricle = pump blood out Blood vessels arteries = carry blood away from heart arterioles veins = return blood to heart venules capillaries = thin wall, exchange / diffusion capillary beds = networks of capillaries
Mammalian Circulation systemic pulmonary systemic
Mammalian Circulation: The Pathway Lungs The Right ventricle pumps blood to the lungs 1
Mammalian Circulation: The Pathway 2 & 3. Leads to the pulmonary arteries as the blood flows through capillary beds in the left and right lungs. It loads O2 and unloads CO2.
Mammalian Circulation: The Pathway Lungs 4. Oxygen rich blood returns from the lungs via the pulmonary veins to the left atrium of the heart. 4
Mammalian Circulation: The Pathway Lungs 5. Next, the oxygen-rich blood flows into the left ventricle as the ventricle pumps the oxygen-rich blood out to body tissues through the systemic circuit. 5
Mammalian Circulation: The Pathway 6. Blood leaves the left ventricle via the aorta, which conveys blood to arteries leading throughout the body. The first branches from the aorta are the coronary arteries (not shown), which supply blood to the heart muscle itself. 6
Mammalian Circulation: The Pathway 7. Then come branches leading to the capillary beds in the head and arms (forelimbs).
Mammalian Circulation: The Pathway 8. The aorta continues in a posterior direction, supplying oxygen-rich blood to arteries leading to arterioles and capillary beds into the abdominal organ and legs.
Mammalian Circulation: The Pathway 9 & 10. Two other large veins called the anterior (or superior) vena cava and posterior (or inferior) vena cava drains blood back to the heart.
Mammalian Circulation: The Pathway 9 11. The two vena cava empty their blood into the right atrium, from which the oxygen-poor blood flows into the right ventricle. 11 10
Arteries: Built for high pressure pump Arteries thicker walls provide strength for high pressure pumping of blood narrower diameter elasticity elastic recoil helps maintain blood pressure even when heart relaxes
Veins: Built for low pressure flow Blood flows toward heart Veins thinner-walled wider diameter blood travels back to heart at low velocity & pressure lower pressure distant from heart blood must flow by skeletal muscle contractions when itmove squeeze blood through veins valves in larger veins one-way valvesallow blood to flow only toward heart Openvalve Closed valve
Capillaries: Built for exchange Capillaries very thin walls lack 2 outer wall layers only endothelium enhances exchange across capillary diffusion exchange between blood & cells
Mammalian Circulation: The Pathway Heart valves Dictate a one-way flow of blood through the heart
Cardiac cycle 1 complete sequence of pumping heart contracts & pumps heart relaxes & chambers fill contraction phase systole ventricles pumps blood out relaxation phase diastole atria refill with blood
Blood Pressure Blood pressure Is the hydrostatic pressure that blood exerts against the wall of a vessel Blood pressure is determined partly by cardiac output And partly by peripheral resistance due to variable constriction of the arterioles
Systolic pressure Is the pressure in the arteries during ventricular systole Is the highest pressure in the arteries Diastolic pressure Is the pressure in the arteries during diastole Is lower than systolic pressure
Blood pressure 1 3 A typical blood pressure reading for a 20-year-oldis 120/70. The units for these numbers are mm of mercury (Hg); a blood pressure of 120 is a force that can support a column of mercury 120 mm high. 4 The cuff is loosened further until the blood flows freely through the artery and the sounds below the cuff disappear. The pressure at this point is the diastolic pressure remaining in the artery when the heart is relaxed. Blood pressure reading: 120/70 Pressurein cuff above 120 Pressurein cuff below 120 Pressurein cuff below 70 Rubber cuffinflatedwith air 120 120 70 Sounds stop Sounds audible instethoscope Artery Arteryclosed A stethoscope is used to listen for sounds of blood flow below the cuff. If the artery is closed, there is no pulse below the cuff. The cuff is gradually deflated until blood begins to flow into the forearm, and sounds from blood pulsing into the artery below the cuff can be heard with the stethoscope. This occurs when the blood pressure is greater than the pressure exerted by the cuff. The pressure at this point is the systolic pressure. A sphygmomanometer, an inflatable cuff attached to apressure gauge, measures blood pressure in an artery.The cuff is wrapped around the upper arm and inflated until the pressure closes the artery, so that no blood flows past the cuff. When this occurs, the pressure exerted by the cuff exceeds the pressure in the artery. 2 110 ____ 70 systolic ________ diastolic pump(peak pressure) _________________ fill(minimum pressure) Figure 42.12
The heart rate, also called the pulse Is the number of beats per minute The cardiac output Is the volume of blood pumped into the systemic circulation per minute
The cardiac cycle Atrial systole; ventricular diastole 2 Semilunarvalvesclosed 0.1 sec Semilunarvalvesopen 0.3 sec 0.4 sec AV valvesopen Atrial and ventricular diastole AV valvesclosed 1 3 Ventricular systole; atrial diastole
Maintaining the Heart’s Rhythmic Beat Some cardiac muscle cells are self-excitable Meaning they contract without any signal from the nervous system
A region of the heart called the sinoatrial (SA) node, or pacemaker Sets the rate and timing at which all cardiac muscle cells contract Impulses from the SA node Travel to the atrioventricular (AV) node At the AV node, the impulses are delayed And then travel to the Purkinje fibers that make the ventricles contract
The pacemaker is influenced by Nerves, hormones, body temperature, and exercise The impulses that travel during the cardiac cycle Can be recorded as an electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG)
The control of heart rhythm Signals pass to heart apex. Signals spread Throughoutventricles. Pacemaker generates wave of signals to contract. Signals are delayed at AV node. Bundlebranches AV node SA node(pacemaker) Purkinjefibers Heartapex ECG 2 1 3 4 Figure 42.8
Capillary Function Capillaries in major organs are usually filled to capacity But in many other sites, the blood supply varies Two mechanisms Regulate the distribution of blood in capillary beds In one mechanism Contraction of the smooth muscle layer in the wall of an arteriole constricts the vessel In a second mechanism Precapillarysphincters control the flow of blood between arterioles and venules
Platelets Platelets function in blood clotting When the endothelium of a blood vessel is damaged The clotting mechanism begins
Blood Clotting blood contains self-sealing materials that plug up leaks when blood vessels are injured. Clotting response is vital to survival. Hemophiliacs= lack a key component of clotting response; susceptible to excessive bleeding during minor injuries.
sealants are always present in the blood: include: platelets: circulating cell fragments which form temporary plugs at site of injury. fibrinogen: when blood vessels are injured, a chain of reactions (cascade) leads to conversion of a soluble fibrinogen into fibrous, insoluble fibrinogen, which is deposited around injury site and traps platelets and white blood cells, forming a clot, until connective tissue forms a permanent patch.
A cascade of complex reactionsConverts fibrinogen to fibrin, forming a clot 3 This seal is reinforced by a clot of fibrin when vessel damage is severe. Fibrin is formed via amultistep process: Clotting factors released fromthe clumped platelets or damaged cells mix withclotting factors in the plasma, forming an activation cascade that converts a plasma proteincalled prothrombin to its active form, thrombin.Thrombin itself is an enzyme that catalyzes the final step of the clotting process, the conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin. The threads of fibrin become interwoven into a patch (see colorized SEM). The clotting process begins when the endothelium of a vessel is damaged, exposing connective tissue in the vessel wall to blood. Platelets adhere to collagen fibers in the connective tissue and release a substance that makes nearby platelets sticky. The platelets form a plug that provides emergency protection against blood loss. 2 1 Collagen fibers Fibrin clot Plateletplug Red blood cell Platelet releases chemicalsthat make nearby platelets sticky Clotting factors from: Platelets Damaged cells Plasma (factors include calcium, vitamin K) Prothrombin Thrombin Figure 42.17 Fibrin Fibrinogen 5 µm
Cardiovascular Disease Cardiovascular diseases Are disorders of the heart and the blood vessels Account for more than half the deaths in the United States
Smooth muscle Connective tissue Plaque Endothelium (a) Normal artery (b) Partly clogged artery 50 µm 250 µm Figure 42.18a, b One type of cardiovascular disease, atherosclerosis Is caused by the buildup of cholesterol within arteries
Hypertension, or high blood pressure Promotes atherosclerosis and increases the risk of heart attack and stroke A heart attack Is the death of cardiac muscle tissue resulting from blockage of one or more coronary arteries A stroke Is the death of nervous tissue in the brain, usually resulting from rupture or blockage of arteries in the head