Early Explorers and Mission Settlements Chapters 4 and 5, Texas History
First Steps in a New Land • Columbus established a colony in the West Indies on his second voyage to the Americas
New Spain • The Aztecs first welcomed Hernan Cortes because they thought he was the god, Quetzalcoatl.
Hernan Cortes • Cortes invaded the Aztec empire, overthrew the capital of Tenochtitlan and killed their emperor
Conquistadors in Texas • de Pineda was the 1st European to explore the Texas coast
Conquistadors in Texas • Cabeza de Vaca shipwrecked near present-day Galveston. He survived by adopting the ways of the Karankawas.
Explorers in Texas • Viceroy heard about cities of gold and sent Fray Marcos to look for the land of Cibola.
Explorers in Texas • The Spanish explorers discovered that Cibola was actually a Zuni Village.
Conquistadors in Texas • A Native American, called the Turk, told Coronado about Quivera. He searched for the fabled city and killed the Turk when no treasure was found.
Conquistadors in Texas • Spain lacked interest in Texas because the conquistadors found no treasure like they had found in Mexico City.
France Challenges Spanish Claims • La Salle was the first European to navigate the Mississippi to the Gulf of Mexico.
France Challenges Spanish Claims • La Salle landed in Texas at Matagorda Bay while searching for the Mississippi River on his 2nd voyage.
France Challenges Spanish Claims • La Salle named the inland region drained by the Mississippi “Louisiana” after the French king, Louis XIV.
France Challenges Spanish Claims • La Salle was the leader of the French outpost in Texas.
France Challenges Spanish Claims • In response to La Salle’s activities, the Spanish shifted their focus to East Texas.
France Challenges Spanish Claims • When the Spanish officials learned of La Salle’s fort in Texas, they sent Alonzo de Leon and his troops to destroy it.
France Challenges Spanish Claims • Alonsode Leon was sent to destroy La Salle’s fort, but found it deserted.
Missions Are Built • The 1st Spanish settlement in an area was often a mission.
Spanish Settle Texas • The first permanent Spanish settlement in Texas was Corpus Christi de la Ysleta, near present-day El Paso.
Missions Are Built • Antonio Margil de Jesus established the San Jose’ y San Miguel de Aguayo Mission.
Missions Are Built • Damian Massanet, a Catholic church official, established the Tejas Mission.
Missions Are Built • Drought and disease caused the Tejas Mission to be abandoned by the Spanish. • Missions failed to Christianize the Plains people due to lack of people and supplies.
Missions Are Built • Friar Francisco Hidalgo requested permission to reopen the TejasMission.
Missions Are Built • Some Native Americans chose to live in missions because food was plentiful, they learned different trades and were taught to speak Spanish.
France Threatens Again • Unlike the Spanish explorers, the French were not interested in converting Native Americans to Christianity.
France Threatens Again • France wanted to trade with the Native Americans. • Louis de St. Denis was sent to negotiate with Spanish officials on the Rio Grande.
Spanish Settle Texas • Spanish responded by establishing settlements in East Texas. Presidios were built to protect the missions from attacks by Native Americans or French.
Spanish Soldiers Help • Soldiers settled in Texas with their families. • Soldiers would maintain control of Native Americans, protect nearby settlements and scout the area for intruders.
War between Spain and France • War broke out when French soldiers seized a mission in East Texas. Spanish viceroy ordered Marques de Aguayo to retake East Texas.
War between Spain and France • Aguayo established Los Adaes near French territory. Los Adaes became the unofficial capital of Texas. • Aguayo also founded La Bahia, near present-day Goliad.
War between Spain and France • The small stream, Arroyo Hondo, ran between Los Adaes and Natchitoches in French territory. The Arroyo Hondo became the boundary between the two territories.
Spanish Cities in Texas • San Antonio, Goliad, Los Adaes and Nacogdoches were the most important settlements. By 1772, San Antonio was the largest.
San Antonio is Founded • The mission at San Antonio was called San Antonio de Valero. The mission chapel is now known as the Alamo.
Escandon founds Towns • Jose’ de Escandonfounded over 20 missions and towns both North and South of the Rio Grande. He is known as the Father of the lower Rio Grande Valley.
Spanish Texas • People of mixed Spanish and Native American blood are called mestizos. • Tejanos are people of Mexican heritage that call Texas their home.