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Chinese Empire • Zhu Di had the Great Wall of China built as protection from enemies. • A silk road developed from China to Europe because China had a lot of silk. • The silk road was a road used to trade silk, oranges, horses and gold between China and Europe. • Zheng He (Chinese) was the first explorer of the Oceans. • The Chinese invented the magnetic compass.
African Kingdoms • Songhai was a powerful kingdom in West Africa. It was also a big trading kingdom with Europe. • There was a lot of gold in Songhai, West Africa. • Gao was an artist’s paradise because the city was full of art and artists. • Timbuktu was a scholarly city that had an excellent university. Picture Credit: http://www.cultures.com/features/Africa/timbuktu/timbuktu.html
What motivated the earliest European explorers? • Faster/ safer trade routes • Spread of Christianity • Adventure • Conquest/power • Wealth (Gold and Silver) • Spices (cinnamon, nutmeg, and pepper) • Spices were used to preserve food.
Obstacles • Simple compasses and maps • Enemies • Disease/death/starvation • Fear of falling off the earth • Lack of food, water etc.
Leading up to Exploration (Marco Polo) • Marco Polo took the Silk Road and returned 3 years later to Europe with the goods he had brought back from China. • Johannes Gutenberg invented the printing press in 1448. Picture Credit: http://shabonee.northbrook27.k12.il.us/Projects/polo.htm
Prince Henry • Trained and encouraged navigators to reach Cape Verde, southern tip of Africa. • He employed cartographers who created the most current maps at that time. Picture Credit: http://www.mrdowling.com/610-henry.html
Bartholomeu Dias • The explorer Bartholomeu Dias was the 1st to reach the Cape of Good Hope, the Southern tip of Africa! • This helped others to see it was possible to reach India by going around Africa! Click Here to See Boat Animations!
Vasco Da Gama • He opened a new route for trade between Europe and Asia without using the silk rode. • In 1498 Vasco Da Gama went around Africa and reached India. Picture Credit: http://www.mariner.org/age/images/dagama.gif
Vikings • Eric the Red was a Viking that led Europeans to Greenland. He started a settlement there. • Leif Ericson, (a son of Eric the Red) led 35 Vikings about 1000 B.C. to go find a land he had heard about through another sailor. • He landed on New Foundland and called it Vinland (Wine Land) because they found grapes there that they made into wine. • On his way back to Greenland, Leif Erickson rescued a ship and its men. As a result, he became rich because the ship gave him all the cargo.
Christopher Columbus • Christopher Columbus convinced King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella to have three ships. • The three ships were: Nina, Pinta, and Santa Maria. • He landed in the Bahama Islands on October 12, 1492. Picture Credit: http://www.mariner.org/age/columbus.html
Christopher Columbus • Also named San Salvador meaning “Holy Savior.” • He saw people and named them “Indians” because he thought that he was in India.
Columbian Exchange • As a result of Columbus’s voyages to the New Word, an exchange began between the Americas and the rest of the world.
Ferdinand Magellan (Portuguese) Picture Credit: http://www.mariner.org/age/magellan.html • Ferdinand Magellan sailed around the southern tip of South America. • His crew made the first round trip around the world. His ship the Victoria made it around the world. • He named the Pacific Ocean because it was so peaceful.
John Cabot • He was born in Italy. • He loved to watch sailors at the docks and hear their stories. • At age 16, he began studying sailing and mapping. • He moved to England and got the King to support his exploration. • He is important because his exploration for England gave England the right to the USA. Picture Credit: http://www.heritage.nf.ca/exploration/cabot.html
Ponce de Leon • He went with Christopher Columbus on his 2nd voyage in 1493. He stayed there and became the 1st European to live on the mainland of North America. • He was Looking for the “fountain of youth” • He found Puerto Rico and became governor there. • He also found Floridia and named it "Pascua de Florida" (feast of flowers) after a Spanish Easter holiday because he found Floridia on Easter! Picture Credit: http://multimedia.esuhsd.org/2000/ed_project/135_web/studentprojects/ageexploration/poncedeleon.html
Hernando De Soto • He Sailed for Spain • His time in the USA was spent exploring Florida down to Mexico looking for gold. • He did find the Mississippi River.
Francisco Coronado • He spent his time looking for the 7 cities of gold! • He was considered a failure because he didn’t find gold. http://www.mce.k12tn.net/explorers/spanishexplorers.htm
Vasco Nunez de Balboa • Vasco Nunez de Balboa shipwrecked in the Bahamas, on the island, Hispaniola. • He tried to make a living farming but ended up owing a lot of money to people. • He then hid in a barrel on a ship to escape. • He discovered the Pacific Ocean. Picture Credit: http://www.czbrats.com/Photos/Homeagain/two/balboa.JPG
Amerigo Vespucci • Amerigo Vespucci • He wanted to find a star above the South pole to help sailors navigate. • He never found the star, but he did help map 3,300 miles of land in South America. • America was named after him. Picture Credit: http://www.esd.k12.ca.us/Matsumoto/TM30/history/Explorers/vespmap.html
Hernando Cortes • Hernando Cortes came to Mexico. • The Aztecs thought he might be a god since he was the 1st white person they had ever seen. • Hernando Cortes conquered the Aztecs in 1519. • The Emperor, Moctesuma was killed in the fighting. Picture Credit: http://www.pwcs.edu/i-tech/resources/tlcf/EarlyExploration/hernando_cortes.htm Click Here to Watch a SlideShow
Francisco Pizzarro • He explored Peru. • Francisco Pizarro conquered the Incas and stole their gold and silver. Picture Credit: http://www.mce.k12tn.net/explorers/spanishexplorers.htm