slide1 n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Basic Genetic Stuff PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Basic Genetic Stuff

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 22

Basic Genetic Stuff - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 141 Views
  • Uploaded on

Basic Genetic Stuff. A. Chromosomes- Cytogenetics. Metaphase Spread. Metaphase was first observed in 1956. Chromosomes are visible in this stage of cell division. The chromosome number in all humans is 46. The metaphase spread procedure is used in DNA analysis. Metaphase Spread.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Basic Genetic Stuff' - chul


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
slide1

Basic Genetic Stuff

A. Chromosomes- Cytogenetics

metaphase spread
Metaphase Spread
  • Metaphase was first observed in 1956.
  • Chromosomes are visible in this stage of cell division.
  • The chromosome number in all humans is 46.
  • The metaphase spread procedure is used in DNA analysis.
metaphase spread1
Metaphase Spread
  • Used for scientists to examine chromosomes.
  • It is used during metaphase because chromosomes are visible.
  • This can be used for different types of studies.
  • Helpful for cancer research as well.
karyotype
Karyotype
  • It is used to identify the length, shape, and number of chromosomes in a certain cell.
  • The chromosomes are cut and arranged by their size.
  • They are arranged from tallest to shortest.
autosomes
Autosomes
  • Humans have 22 autosomes.
  • The autosomes are from chromosome number 1 to 22.
  • They are organized in number by their different size.
  • They control the hereditary genes of humans besides the sex gene.
sex chromosomes
Sex Chromosomes
  • The sex chromosome is chromosome number 23.
  • Males have XY
  • Females Have XX
  • Mother passes down an X, and males can pass down an X or Y gene.
chromosome anatomy chromosome 5 centromere constriction
Chromosome Anatomy-Chromosome #5Centromere- Constriction
  • The centromere is the center of the chromosome.
  • It holds the chromosome together.
  • It is constricted and it helps form the p and q arm.
p arm
P-arm
  • The p-arm is the short arm of the chromosome.
  • It is called the p-arm because it is petite.
  • It is up on the karotype.
q arm
Q-Arm
  • The q-arm is the long arm of the chromosome.
  • It is called the q- arm because q is right after p.
  • It is down on the karyotype.
telomeres
Telomeres
  • Telomeres are repetitive strands of DNA.
  • They are at the top and bottom of every chromosome.
  • Protects the chromosome from breaking down.
chromatids
Chromatids
  • They are the arms of a chromosome.
  • They have to be duplicated to become chromosomes.
  • They fuse and become diploids.
homo sapiens chromosome 5
Homo Sapiens Chromosome #5
  • Chromosome is one of the largest chromosomes.
  • It has a low gene density though.
chromosome identification
Chromosome Identification

In three easy steps:

1: size

2: Binding pattern

3: Centromere position

chromosome banding
Chromosome Banding
  • There are sets of strips on all the chromosomes and all of the strips are unique
  • Each Strip contains DNA information that connects with other strips to make working functions throughout the body
  • Staining methods help identify specific bands/ chromosome segments
permits individual chromosome identification
Permits individual chromosome identification
  • This is also known as the Bar Code
  • It is a way of identifying one or more short gene sequences that is used to identify species through reference to DNA sequence libraries or databases
international systems of stripes and numbers
International systems of Stripes and Numbers
  • It is standard, used internationally, to identify groups of chromosomes
  • And based on the groups of chromosomes the particular meanings and uses of each group of chromosomes are indicated
ideogram idealized diagram of banded chromosomes
Ideogram- Idealized Diagram of banded chromosomes
  • Idealized diagrams of G- banded chromosomes are publish also as reference points for Chromosome banding.
pinpoint break points
Pinpoint Break Points
  • This is used in many ways especially cloning chromosomes.
  • It is when there are break points in a chromosome, and they are pinpointed for results.
pinpoint gene locus
Pinpoint Gene Locus
  • It is when groups of chromosomes that make up a gene are pinpointed.
  • It is used for research and maybe even for cloning.
highest resolution banding
Highest Resolution Banding
  • High resolution banding techniques enable detection of chromosome rearrangements even within major bands
  • This allows people to analyze and pinpoint specific chromosomes
sources cited
Sources Cited
  • "Metaphase Spread - Medaphile." Metaphase Spread - Medaphile. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Feb. 2013.
  • From this site, I learned that metaphase spread is used for research, especially for cancer. I also learned that they use chromosomes in metaphase because they are clearly visible.
  • "Karyotype Test." WebMD. WebMD, n.d. Web. 18 Feb. 2013.
  • I learned that karyotypes are used to identify the different sizes, shapes, and lengths of chromosomes, and that they are cut and lined up in order from tallest to shortest.
  • "Autosome." - Glossary Entry. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Feb. 2013.
  • I learned that there are 22 autosomes. They are chromosomes number 1-25. They are lined up in order from tallest to shortest.
  • "Centromere." About.com Biology. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Feb. 2013.
  • I learned that the centromere is a constricted site that connects the two sister chromatids together.
  • "P Arm of a Chromosome Definition - Medical Dictionary Definitions of Popular Medical Terms Easily Defined on MedTerms." Medterms. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Feb. 2013.
  • I learned that the p arm is the short arm of the chromosome, and that it is on the up side of the chromosome.
  • "Q Arm of a Chromosome Definition - Medical Dictionary Definitions of Popular Medical Terms Easily Defined on MedTerms." Medterms. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Feb. 2013.
  • I learned that the q arm is the long arm of the chromosome and that it is on the down side of the chromosome.
  • "Telomere - What Are Telomeres?" Telomere - What Are Telomeres?N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Feb. 2013.
  • I learned that the telomeres are repetitive strands of DNA, and they are on both sides of the chromosome, and they protect the chromosome from breaking down.
  • "Chromatids." - Definition from Biology-Online.org. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Feb. 2013.
  • I learned that the chromatids are the arms of a chromosome and they have to become duplicated to become chromosomes, and they fuse to form diploids.
  • "Homo Sapiens - Home." Homo Sapiens - Home. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Feb. 2013.
  • I learned that the homo sapien chromosome number 5 is one of the largest, but it has a low gene density.
sources cited cont
Sources cited (cont)
  • Picture-http://t1.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcRpBzjNsaI9ltTKR7rAHa1g0Ld_Px_Ev4KT6DNXvBWpu75AfKQEAA 
  • "Chromosome banding - Glossary Entry - Genetics Home Reference." Genetics Home Reference - Your guide to understanding genetic conditions. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Feb. 2013. <http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/glossary=chromosomebanding>. –this cite was used to obtain the information on Chromosome banding
  • "DNA Barcodes - Methods and Protocols."Springer - International Publisher Science, Technology, Medicine. N.p., n.d. Web. 17 Feb. 2013. <http://www.springer.com/biomed/human+genetics/book/978-1-61779-590-9>.- this cite was used to obtain the information on DNA barcodes
  • "How Do Scientists Read Chromosomes?." Learn.Genetics™. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Feb. 2013. <http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/begin/traits/scientists/>.- this cite was used to understand how chromosomes are identification
  • "unkown." unkown. N.p., n.d. Web. 13 Feb. 2016. <web.udl.es/usuaris/e4650869/docencia/s- this cite was used to obtain the information on Highest Resolution Banding