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CIS 321—IS Analysis & Design. Chapter 2: Approaches to System Development. Overview. Systems development can be very complex. The systems development ______ cycle (SDLC) framework can help address this complexity. Other aids in systems development are methodologies models tools _________

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CIS 321—IS Analysis & Design


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cis 321 is analysis design

CIS 321—IS Analysis & Design

Chapter 2: Approaches to System Development

overview
Overview
  • Systems development can be very complex.
  • The systems development ______ cycle (SDLC) framework can help address this complexity.
  • Other aids in systems development are
    • methodologies
    • models
    • tools
    • _________
  • Two major approaches to systems development:
    • traditional
    • object-oriented
the basic sdlc
The Basic SDLC
  • Project definition:
    • A planned endeavor with a beginning and an end that produces a desired result
  • System development project
    • The result is an information system
  • A complex project requires a detailed plan
  • Five phases of system development
    • project planning—initiate, plan, obtain approval
    • analysis—determine requirements
    • design—define the solution
    • implementation—implement the solution
    • support—maintain and enhance the system
project planning phase
Project Planning Phase
  • Define the problem
    • existing system
    • proposed system
  • Produce the project _________
    • establish milestones
  • Confirm project _________
    • economic, organizational, technical, resource, schedule
  • Staff the project
    • select/acquire the staff and allocate time
  • Launch the project
    • management approval, allocation of resources
analysis phase
Analysis Phase
  • Gather information
    • learn about the problem _________, users, stakeholders
  • Define system requirements
    • draw diagrams
  • Build ___________ of system components
    • to discover additional requirements
  • Prioritize requirements
  • Generate and evaluate alternatives
    • develop in-______, buy a package, contract w/ third party
  • Review recommendations with management
    • choose alternative, proceed
design phase
Design Phase
  • Design and integrate the network
    • hardware, operating systems
  • Design the application architecture
    • addresses problem domain requirements
  • Design the user __________
    • forms, reports, screens, etc.
  • Design the system interfaces
    • communicating with other systems
  • Design and integrate the database
  • Prototype for design details
    • prototypes can be saved for the final system
  • Design and integrate the system controls (security)
implementation phase
Implementation Phase
  • Construct software components
    • using VB .NET, Java, etc.
  • Verify and test
    • all possible situations
  • Convert data
    • populate the database
  • Train users and document the system
    • avoid frustrated users
  • Install the system
    • prototype, parallel systems, complete changeover
support phase
Support Phase
  • Debug the system
    • corrective maintenance
  • Upgrade the system
    • _________ maintenance
  • Enhance the system
    • _________ maintenance
  • Support the users
    • help desk
sdlc the element of time
SDLC & the Element of Time
  • Waterfall approach
    • each phase is completed before the next one begins
  • Overlapping of phases
    • speed development, required by the nature of the problem
  • _________ of phases
    • perform the same phase repeatedly until it’s good enough to begin the next phase
    • each iteration of one phase provides new information about the previous phase
  • Divide project into miniprojects (UI, apps, DB)
  • ____________ development
    • deliver part of the system before the whole system
aids for completing the sdlc
Aids for Completing the SDLC
  • Methodologies
    • a collection of techniques for how to use tools to create models
  • Models
    • A model is an ___________ of something in the real world
    • Models can be physical, mathematical, graphical, textual
    • Flowchart, DFD, ERD, structure chart, use case diagram, …
    • Project planning models (PERT and Gantt charts)
  • Tools
    • software support to create models or even program code
  • Techniques
    • step-by-step instructions
traditional approach to system development
Traditional Approach to System Development
  • Structured programming
    • Three structures: sequence, selection, __________
    • top-down programming (modular programming)
  • Structured design
    • modules arranged in a structure chart
    • modules are loosely coupled and highly __________
  • Structured analysis
    • data flow diagram (DFD)
    • entity-relationship diagram (ERD)
  • Information engineering (James Martin)
    • rigid focus on strategic planning, data, CASE
object oriented system development oosd
Object-oriented System Development (OOSD)
  • Object
    • A thing that encapsulates attributes and behavior
  • OO analysis
    • identifying problem domain objects and their relationships
  • OO design
    • identifying system objects (people, devices)
  • OO programming
    • C++, Java, C#
  • A class is a specification of one type of object
  • OOSD is more natural, leads to reuse (?)
sdlc variations
SDLC Variations
  • Variations of names for phases
    • planning, feasibility study, investigation, strategy planning
    • construction, transition, implementation
  • Variations based on _______-computer interaction
    • sociotechnical systems
    • Multiview
    • soft systems methodology
  • Variations based on speed of development
    • _______ application development (RAD)
    • prototyping
current trends in development 1
Current Trends in Development 1
  • Spiral model
    • highly iterative
    • create series of prototypes
    • begin with areas of greatest risk
  • eXtreme Programming (XP)
    • developed by Kent Beck
    • user ________
    • series of releases
    • two programmers work together
    • work only ____ hours per week
current trends in development 2
Current Trends in Development 2
  • Unified Process (UP)
    • developed by Booch, Rumbaugh, Jacobson of _________ Software
    • designed for OOSD
    • uses UML (________ Modeling Language)
    • phases: inception, elaboration, construction, transition
  • Agile Modeling
    • developed by Scott Ambler
    • mix between the lightweight XP and the heavy duty UP
    • iterative and incremental
    • teamwork
    • simplicity
    • validation