Energy and Life • _________ – make own food • Plants • _________, chemosynthesis • _________ – obtain energy from food • Animals • _________
Chemical Energy and ATP • Principle chemical compounds – _________ – Adenosine Triphosphate • Adenine • 5-carbon sugar (_________ ) • _________ phosphates • ADP – Adenosine Diphosphate • Adenine • 5-carbon sugar (_________ ) • _________ phosphates
Chemical Energy and ATP • When a cell has energy available it is stored by adding a _________ group to ADP to make ATP • To release energy, the bond between the 2nd and 3rd phosphates is _________ • ATP provides the power for many cellular functions such as _________ , _________ synthesis, and muscle contractions. • The characteristics of ATP make it exceptionally useful as the basic _________ source for all cells!!!
Investigating P.S. – The Dudes • Jan Van _________ Experiment • Devised an experiment to see if plants grew by taking material out of the _________ . • Determined the mass of a pot of dry soil and a small seedling, then planted the seedling in the pot of soil. He watered it regularly. At the end of 5 years, the seedling had grown into a small tree and had gained about 75 kg. The mass of the soil was _________ . He concluded the mass must have come from the _________ . This accounts for the “hydrate” portion of the carbohydrates produced by PS. • Helmont didn’t realize that _________ also played a major role in PS.
Investigating P.S. – The Dudes • Joseph _________ Experiment • Priestly took a candle, placed a glass jar over it, and watched as the flame died out. This lead him to believe that something in the _________ was necessary for the candle to continue burning. • He then found that if he placed a live sprig of mint under the jar and allowed a few days to pass, the candle could be relit and would remain lit for a while. • He concluded that the mint plant produced the substance required for the burning of the candle. He didn’t know it at the time, but what is being released is _________ .
Investigating P.S. – The Dudes • Jan _________ • Showed the effect observed by Priestly occurred only when the plant was exposed to _________ . • These experiments, along with others, led to the discovery that plants transform _________ and _________ into _________ and _________ in the presence of light.
The Photosynthesis Equation • YOU MUST MEMORIZE THIS!!!!! sun • Carbon dioxide + water glucose + oxygen sun • 6 CO2 + 6 H2O C6H12O6 + 6 O2
Light and Pigments • In addition to water and carbon dioxide, PS requires _________ and _________ (a molecule in chloroplasts). • Energy from the sun travels to Earth in the form of light. • Sunlight is a mixture of different _________ of light, many of which are visible and make up the visible spectrum. Different wavelengths are seen as different _________ .
Light and Pigments • Plants gather the sun’s energy with light-absorbing molecules called pigments. The plants’ principle pigment is _________ . • There are two types of chlorophyll. • Chlorophyll _________ • Chlorophyll _________
Light and Pigments • Chlorophyll absorbs light very well in the _________ and _________ regions of the visible spectrum. However it does not absorb light well in the _________ region of the spectrum. • Green light is reflected by leaves, which is why plants look green. • Plants also contain red and orange pigments such as carotene that absorb light in other regions of the spectrum.
Inside the Chloroplast • Location of PS • Contains _________ , which are sac-like photosynthetic membranes. • Thylakoids are arranged in stacks called _______. • Proteins in the thylakoid membrane organize chlorophyll and other pigments into clusters known as _________ , which are light collecting units of the chloroplast. • Two types of reactions in the photosystems: • Light- _________ reactions • Light- _________ reactions (aka Calvin Cycle)
Electron Carriers • When sunlight excites the e- in _________ , e- gain a great deal of _________ . • High-energy e- require a special carrier to move them from chlorophyll to other molecules. • Carrier molecule is a compound that can accept a pair of high-energy _________ and transfer them along with most of their energy to another molecule. • Called _________ _________ • Carriers are called the electron transport chain (ETC)
Electron Carriers – NADP+ • _________ : Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotidephospate • Accepts and hold 2 e- along with H+ ion • This converts NADP+ into _________ • NADPH then carries e- to other locations in cell • In photosynthesis, the NADPH is used to create high-energy _________
Light-Dependent Reactions • Use energy from light to produce _________ and converts ADP and NADP+ into _________ and _________ • Photosystem II (PS II) • Chlorophyll a in PS II absorbs sunlight. This _________ an e-. • This e- is captured by the primary e- acceptor. • An enzyme in the thylakoid splits water into 2 e-, 2 H+ ions, and an O atom. These e- replace the e- lost to the primary e- acceptor. Two O atoms combine to form _________ . • e- are passed to the _________ .
Light-Dependent Reactions • ETC • High energy e- move through the ETC from _________ to _________ . • Energy from e- is used by molecules in ETC to transport H+ ions from _________ into inner thylakoid space. • Photosystem I (PS I) • Pigments in PS I use energy from light to _________ e-. • NADP+ picks up an e- with an H+ to become _________ .
Light-Dependent Reactions • Hydrogen Ion Movement • As e- are passed from chlorophyll at NADP+, more H+ ions are _________ across membrane. • Inside of the membrane fills with positively charged H+. • Difference in charges provides energy to make _________ .
Light-Dependent Reactions • ATP Formation • H+ ions can’t cross membrane directly. • ATP _________ allows H+ to pass through it. • As H+ passes through ATP Synthase, the protein rotates. • As it rotates, ATP Synthase binds ADP and a _________ group to produce _________ . http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eY1ReqiYwYs
Light-Independent Reactions (aka Calvin Cycle) • Plants use energy that _________ and _________ contain to build high energy compounds that can be stored for a long time. • The ATP and NADPH comes from _________ reactions.
Light-Independent Reactions (aka Calvin Cycle) • 6 _________ enter cycle from atmosphere. These 6 CO2 molecules combine with 6 5-carbon molecules. This results in 12 3-carbon molecules. • The 12 3-carbon molecules are converted into high-energy forms. The energy comes from ATP and high-energy e- from _________ .
Light-Independent Reactions (aka Calvin Cycle) • 2 of the 12 3-carbon molecules are removed from cycle. These two molecules are used to produce _________ , lipids, amino acids, and other compounds. • The remaining 3-carbon molecules are converted back into 6 5-carbon molecules. They combine with 6 new _________ molecules to begin a new cycle. • Uses 6 _________ to produce a single _________