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  1. Vocabulary 9th literature

  2. 9/6—Literary terms Text: any arrangement of words • Genre: category of literature • Major Genre: prose, verse, drama • Minor Genre: specific subdivisions of major genre • Narrative: text that tells a story

  3. 9/6 Vocabulary Colleague— (N) a person somebody works with. Especially in a profession or skilled job. (syn: coworker, associate, partner). Omission--(N) something that has been deliberately or accidentally left out or not done(syn: oversight, slip) Syntax--(N) the ordering of and relationship between words and other structural elements in phrases and sentences (syn: structure, rule) Reluctant--(adj) feeling no willingnessor enthusiasm to do something(syn: unwilling, hesitant) Insomnia—(N) inability to fall asleepor to remain asleep long enough to feel rested (syn: sleeplessness, restlessness)

  4. 9/10 • Review: • Copy and fill in the blanks: • lazy : industrious :: ____ : enthusiastic • co-worker : _____ :: supervisor : manager • sentence structure : _____ :: pattern : design • asthma : breathless :: _____ : tired • inclusion : _____ :: fatigue : energy

  5. Analogies • Word relationships. hot : cold :: tall : _____ worker : factory :: student : _____ cold : winter :: hot : ____ • narcolepsy : _______ :: anorexia : obesity • game rules : board game :: _______ : grammar • foe : friend :: rival : _______ • hesitant : _______ :: willing : enthusiastic • foe : enemy :: _______ : exclusion

  6. 9/10 Literary Terms • Prose: text written in standard paragraph form • Verse: text not written in standard paragraph form • Drama:text meant to be performed • Narrative:text that tells a story. • Plot: series of events that tell a story • Story Line:individual plot line (short stories usually have one, novels several)

  7. 9/10 Literary Terms • Exposition: beginning of story, tells character, setting, mood Central Conflict: basic problem of story • Rising Action: attempts to solve problem • Climax: solution to problem • Falling Action: events caused by solution • Resolution: reactions to climax

  8. 9/10 • Main Idea--summary of the plot • Conflict--when the desires of a character are blocked Internal Conflict--conflict exists in the mind of a character (requires a decision to be made) External Conflict--conflict exists outside of the mind (requires an action to be performed)

  9. 9/10 • Internal Conflict External Conflict person vs. self person vs. person person vs. society (machine) person vs. nature person vs. supernatural

  10. 9/10 • 4. Set up short answer blocks on paper and respond to the following • Explain what gives value to a person’s life. 2. Can a person’s life lose value? Explain.

  11. 9/13 Vocab. • Because of John’s _____, he was tired and sluggish throughout the day. Sarah had a phobia of water and was _____ to go in the pool. The _____ of information caused much confusion. Poor _____ made reading the letter very difficult. Many of Frank’s _____ were at the company party.

  12. 9/13 REview • text • Genre • Major Genre: Prose, Verse, Drama • Minor Genre • Narrative • Plot: Exposition (setting, character, tone, mood), Central Conflict, Rising Action, Climax, Falling Action, Resolution • Main Idea • Conflict: Internal (person vs. self)/External (person vs. person/society/nature/supernatural) • Vocabulary

  13. 9/17 • Symbol—something is itself and represents something else. • Ie:

  14. 9/17 • Theme—general statement about life; may be positive or negative, never a single word, may or may not be desired.

  15. 9/18 • Symbol Meaning (within the story) • light • shadow • sleep • café • bodega • What is the theme of “A Clean, Well-Lighted Place?”

  16. 9/18 • -Writing Prompt: • In a short answer format state and explain the theme of the story (what is the author trying to tell us about human life and how does he make that argument).  One quote from the story is necessary.

  17. 9/20 • Useful Vocab: • Sexton: a church, congregation, or synagogue officer charged with the maintenance of its buildings and/or the surrounding graveyard. • Emblem: symbol • Synod: A council or an assembly of church officials • Ostentatious: characterized by pretentious, showy, or vulgar display • Indecorous: improper or ungraceful; unseemly

  18. 9/20 • Opening Question: In a short answer explain whether pretending to be someone you are not is or isn’t harmful.

  19. 9/24 vocab • accord: (noun) agreement; consensus (verb) to agree; to grant something • swathed: (verb) to wrapsomebody or something completely • unaccountable: (adjective) not answerable; inexplicable • perturbation: (noun) being disturbed; cause of trouble • venerable: (adjective) worthy of respect; revered; ancient • countenance: (noun): face or expression; composure

  20. 9/24 Homework • In a short answer identify one symbol from the story and explain what it means and why it is important. • (Be sure to answer using at least 6 sentences, due tomorrow)

  21. 9/25 Vocab • 1. soap : washed :: shroud : _____ • 2. pleasant : unlikable :: disreputable : _____ • 3. disagreement : dispute :: agreement : _____

  22. 9/25 • Connotation: • An associated or secondary meaning of a word or expression in addition to its explicit or primary meaning. • --emotional attachment • Denotation: Dictionary definition of a word.

  23. 9/25 • Which word has a more positive connotation? Ted’s Restaurant is furnished with (old, antique) furniture. Mike’s (shabby, vintage) bike is black and gold. A group of (loud, enthusiastic) students walk to school every day. My parents argue (loudly, passionately) about politics over dinner.

  24. 9/27 Vocab • 1. She wanted to hide her feelings but she had a worried _____ that betrayed her emotions. • 2. An unexpected test caused a _____ in the class with many students complaining. • 3. Although records were kept, some of the funds were _____, which caused a shortage in the budget.

  25. 9/27 Vocab • Main Character: principle participant in the story • Minor Character: maintains a limited role in the story • Protagonist: character that attempts to achieve or change something • Antagonist: character that attempts to stop someone or something • Static Character: does not change • Dynamic Character: changes • Flat Character: limited in personality; stereotype • Round Character: well developed; many sides to personality

  26. 9/27 Homework • In an Extended Answer explain what type of person Elizabeth is. Be sure to include information of what she is like at the beginning as well as at the end to note any change or not. Be sure to identify by the end of the response what type of character she is. (An extended answer is between 3-5 paragraphs)

  27. 10/2 vocabulary • august (adj) dignified and splendid • diffident (adj) lacking self-confidence; reserved or restrained • acrid (adj) pungent; sour • perpetuity (n) perpetual condition;eternity • deprecation (n) criticism • inextricable (adj) impossible to escape from, to disentangle; extremely complex • archaic (adj) outmoded; no longer in ordinary language; ancient • circumvent (v) get around restriction; out wit somebody • temerity (n) audacity; boldness • macabre (adj) horribly gruesome

  28. 10/2 Lit Terms • Characterization:the act by which an author reveals character • Direct: when the author directly states what type of person a character is • Indirect:when the author gives clues about what type of person a character is -says -appearance -thinks -what other characters say or think about them -does

  29. 10/2 Lit Terms • Allusion: a reference to something outside the text that the reader is expected to know; provides additional information; may become a symbol. • Figures of Speech: comparison between two unlike things not meant to be taken literally • Metaphor: figure of speech in which something is said to be something else; metaphors may be implied. • Simile: figure of speech in which one thing is connected to another with phrases such as “like” or “as”

  30. Lit terms 10/2 • Personification: figure of speech where non-human things are given human qualities • Hyperbole: figure of speech that uses great exaggeration •  Point of View: the perspective a text is told from • 1stPerson: narrated by a character in the text • 2ndPerson: reader is in the text • 3rd Person Limited: follows one character through the story • 3rd Person Omniscient: follows all or most character • 3rd Person Omnipotent: reveals thoughts of character • 3rd Person Objective: narrates only what can be seen or heard

  31. exercise • Identify the figure of speech covered in the previous slides: 1.) She was a fresh as a flower 2.) It took me four years to get to school this morning. 3.) The dew, like morning’s sweat, glistened in the sun. 4.) Life’s a journey, not a destination. 5.) Only the champion daisy trees were serene. After all, they were part of a rain forest already two thousand years old and scheduled for eternity, so they ignored the men and continued to rock the diamondbacks that slept in their arms.

  32. 10/4 • Fill in the blanks with the appropriate vocabulary words: • scorn ::: praise : applaud • infinity : sporadic ::: intermittent • old : new ::: fresh • merry : Christmas ::: Halloween pungent ::: sweet : sugary

  33. 10/4 • Device Quiz for Extra Credit: • 1. When what is said is opposite of what is meant, what type of irony is created? • 2. How a writer reveals character is called what? • 3. A figure of speech in which one thing is said to be another is called what? • 4. A great exaggeration is called what? • 5. A reference to something outside of the text is called what?

  34. 10/4 • (10 min.) Extended Answer: Explain the importance of human companionship in both previous stories and how each differ in what they imply about it. One quote (author, #) needed from both stories.

  35. 10/8 • shy: _____ :: arrogant : egotistical • majestic: humble :: _____ : modest                   • avoid: invite :: _____ : request • boldness: _____ :: audacity : impudence                   • 2+2 : easy :: -x^2 + 2(k+2)x - 9k = 0 : _____

  36. 10/8 • Read and analyze the quote below: • I lay awake in the dark, dark room...and tried to fall asleep. I mean, I really tried. But all I could think of was ghosts...and eyeballs...and creepy noises. • Scritch-scratch. • Nah, just the wind, I told myself. • Scritch. Scritch. Scraaaatch. • The noise seemed to come from the wall nearest me. I tried to forget about it by humming a happy tune. Hum-de-dum, de-dumm-dum. • Then it started. Just as Ralphie had described it. • WooOOoowooOOoowooOOoo. • I lifted my head and looked around the room. Soon there were more sounds. • Thump. Thump. Thump. I looked up. In the corner of the room, I saw two yellow eyes. • They were floating in the dark. • Scritch-scratch. Thump, thump, thump. WooOO-wooOOoo. • The eyes were coming closer. And closer. Right then, I knew for sure: I was a goner.

  37. 10/8 • Suspense: creating tension within the reader by promoting questions or a desire to know what will happen next. • Suspense is created by: • 1. giving clues as to what will happen next (Foreshadowing) • 2. withholding information • 3. by supplying false information (irony). • Foreshadowing: the use of clues that suggest the outcome of situations in the narrative

  38. 10/8 Homework • Find and underline 3 figures of speech; find and underline characterization of Emily. -I will check this tomorrow when I stamp learning plans.

  39. 10/9 homework • In a short answer explain what type of person Emily is.  Be sure to include one quote for support. • In a short answer explain what type of character Emily is. Be sure to include one quote for support • One paragraph for each response, will be collected on Wednesday (10/10).

  40. Quiz Vocab • Personification denotation connotation • Theme symbol metaphor • Text hyperbole main idea • Protagonist characterization antagonist • Main character point of view simile • Suspense prose verse • Orange allusion person v. self • Person v. supernatural static character allegory • Anaphora drama narrative

  41. 10/15 • Think-Pair-Share: • 1.) read each discussion question, write 1-2 sentences answering the question. • Discussion Questions: • 1.  In a short answer explain the structure of the plot and its reasons. • 2.  Short Answer:  If Emily is a static character, why does it seem that she changes through the story?  What exactly is changing? • 3.  In an extended answer compare/contrast the relationship Emily had with her father and Homer.  Two quotes properly cited needed. • 4.  In a short answer explain how the appearance of the house is related to Emily’s life.  One quote properly cited is needed. • 5.  In a short answer explain the theme of the story. One quote properly cited is needed.

  42. 10/15 • Pair: turn to your neighbor in front of or behind you; discuss each answer. • Consider the other person’s answers to the questions, how are they different from yours? How can you add them into your discussion question? • Share: Each group will pick their strongest answer and share with the class.

  43. 10/15 • Homework: Use today’s notes for help: • Complete one of the discussion questions on Loose-leaf. (6-12 sentences) • Discussion Questions: • 1.  In a short answer explain the structure of the plot and its reasons. • 2.  Short Answer:  If Emily is a static character, why does it seem that she changes through the story?  What exactly is changing? • 3.  In an extended answer compare/contrast the relationship Emily had with her father and Homer.  Two quotes properly cited needed. • 4.  In a short answer explain how the appearance of the house is related to Emily’s life.  One quote properly cited is needed. • 5.  In a short answer explain the theme of the story. One quote properly cited is needed.

  44. 10/16 • You have an exam on Monday, October 22. • To Study: • A Rose for Emily • Plot points—your freytag’s pyramid graphic organizer will help here. • Characterization • Be able to pick out three different figures of speech • Point of view • Theme • Discussion questions covered in class today—write them down to practice answering them using extended answers/short answers.

  45. parameters • A short answer is 6 to 8 lines of paper and needs usually one detail/explanation to prove its topic. •  The extended answer is 9 to 14 lines and usually requires two details/explanations to prove its topic